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The London And Country Brewer 1736
THE LONDON and COUNTRY BREWER 1736Containing an Account,I. Of the Nature of the Barley-Corn, and of the proper Soils and Manures for the Improvement thereof.II. Of making good Malts.III. To know good from bad Malts.IV. Of the Use of the Pale, Amber, and Brown Malts.V. Of the Nature of several Waters, and their Use in Brewing.VI. Of Grinding Malts.VII. Of Brewing in general.VIII. Of the _London_ Method of Brewing Stout, But-Beer, Pale and Brown Ales.IX. Of the Country or Private Way of Brewing.X. Of the Nature and Use of the Hop.XI. Of Boiling Malt liquors, and to Brew a Quantity of Drink in a little Room, and with a few Tubs.XII. Of Foxing or Tainting of Malt Liquors; their Prevention and Cure.XIII. Of Fermenting and Working of Beers and Ales, and the unwholesome Practice of Beating in the Yeast, detected.XIV. Of several artificial Lees for feeding, fining, preserving, and relishing Malt Liquors.XV. Of several pernicious Ingredients put into Malt Liquors to encrease their Strength.XVI. Of the Cellar or Repository for keeping Beers and Ales.XVII. Of Sweetening and Cleaning Casks.XVIII. Of Bunging Casks and Carrying them to some Distance.XIX. Of the Age and Strength of Malt Liquors.XX. Of the Profit and Pleasure of Private Brewing and the Charge of Buying Malt Liquors.To which is added,XXI. A Philosophical Account of Brewing Strong _October_ Beer. By an Ingenious Hand.By a Person formerly concerned in a Common Brewhouse at _London_, but fortwenty Years past has resided in the Country.The SECOND EDITION, Corrected.LONDONPrinted for Messeurs Fox, at the _Half-Moon and Seven Stars_, in_Westminster-Hall_. M.DCC.XXXVI.[Price Two Shillings.]THE PREFACE.The many Inhabitants of Cities and Towns, as well as Travellers, that havefor a long time suffered great Prejudices from unwholsome and unpleasantBeers and Ales, by the badness of Malts, underboiling the Worts, mixinginjurious Ingredients, the unskilfulness of the Brewer, and the greatExpense that Families have been at in buying them clogg'd with a heavyExcise, has moved me to undertake the writing of this Treatise on Brewing,Wherein I have endeavour'd to set in sight the many advantages of Bodyand Purse that may arise from a due Knowledge and Management in BrewingMalt Liquors, which are of the greatest Importance, as they are in aconsiderable degree our Nourishment and the common Diluters of our Food;so that on their goodness depends very much the Health and Longevity ofthe Body.This bad Economy in Brewing has brought on such a Disrepute, and made ourMalt Liquors in general so odious, that many have been constrain'd, eitherto be at an Expence for better Drinks than their Pockets could afford, ortake up with a Toast and Water to avoid the too justly apprehended illConsequences of Drinking such Ales and Beers.Wherefore I have given an Account of Brewing Beers and Ales after severalMethods; and also several curious Receipts for feeding, fining andpreserving Malt Liquors, that are most of them wholsomer than the Maltitself, and so cheap that none can object against the Charge, which Ithought was the ready way to supplant the use of those unwholsomeIngredients that have been made too free with by some ill principledPeople meerly for their own Profit, tho' at the Expence of the Drinker'sHealth._I hope I have adjusted that long wanted Method of giving a due Standardboth to the Hop and Wort, which never was yet (as I know of) rightlyascertain'd in Print before, tho' the want of it I am perswaded has beenpartly the occasion of the scarcity of good Drinks, as is at this timevery evident in most Places in the Nation. I have here also divulg'd theNostrum of the Artist Brewer that he has so long valued himself upon, inmaking a right Judgment when the Worts are boiled to a true Crisis; amatter of considerable Consequence, because all strong Worts may be boiledtoo much or too little to the great Loss of the Owner, and without thisKnowledge a Brewer must go on by Guess; which is a hazard that every oneought to be free from that can; and therefore I have endeavor'd to explodethe old Hour-glass way of Brewing, by reason of the several Uncertaintiesthat attend such Methods and the hazard of spoiling both Malt and Drink;for in short where a Brewing is perform'd by Ladings over of scaldingWater, there is no occasion for the Watch or Hour-glass to boil the Wortby, which is best known by the Eye, as I have both in this and my secondBook made appear.I have here observed that necessary Caution, which is perfectly requisitein the Choice of good and the Management of bad Waters; a Matter of highImportance, as the Use of this Vehicle is unavoidable in Brewing, andtherefore requires a strict Inspection into its Nature; and this I havebeen the more particular in, because I am sensible of the great Quantitiesof unwholsome Waters used not only by Necessity, but by a mistaken Choice.So also I have confuted the old received Opinion lately published by anEminent Hand, that long Mashings are the best Methods in Brewing; an Errorof dangerous Consequence to all those who brew by Ladings over of the hotWater on the Malt.The great Difficulty and what has hitherto proved an Impediment andDiscouragement to many from Brewing their own Drinks, I think, I have insome measure removed, and made it plainly appear how a Quantity of MaltLiquor may be Brewed in a little Room and in the hottest Weather, withoutthe least Damage by Foxing or other Taint.The Benefit of Brewing entire Guile small Beer from fresh Malt, and theill Effects of that made from Goods after strong Beer or Ale; I have hereexposed, for the sake of the Health and Pleasure of those that may easilyprove their advantage by drinking of the former and refusing the latter.By the time the following Treatise is read over and thoroughly considered,I doubt not but an ordinary Capacity will be in some degree a better Judgeof good and bad Malt Liquors as a Drinker, and have such a Knowledge inBrewing that formerly he was a stranger to; and therefore I am in greatHopes these my Efforts will be one Principal Cause of the reforming ourMalt Liquors in most Places; and that more private Families than ever willcome into the delightful and profitable Practice of Brewing their ownDrinks, and thereby not only save almost half in half of Expence, butenjoy such as has passed thro' its regular Digestions, and is trulypleasant, fine, strong and healthful.I Question not but this Book will meet with some Scepticks, who beingneither prejudiced against the Introduction of new Improvements, or thattheir Interests will be hereby eclipsed in time; To such I say I do notwrite, because I have little hopes to reform a wrong Practice in them byReason and Argument. But those who are above Prejudice may easily judge ofthe great Benefits that will accrue by the following Methods, I have hereplainly made known, and of those in my Second Book that I have almostfinished and hope to publish in a little time, wherein I shall set forthhow to Brew without boiling Water or Wort, and several other Ways thatwill be of considerable Service to the World_.[Illustration]CHAP. I._Of the Nature of the Barley-Corn, and of the proper Soils and Manures forthe Improvement thereof_.This Grain is well known to excel all others for making of Malts thatproduce those fine _British_ Liquors, Beer and Ale, which no other Nationcan equalize; But as this Excellency cannot be obtain'd unless the severalIngredients are in a perfect State and Order, and these also attended witha right judgment; I shall here endeavour to treat on their severalparticulars, and first of Soils.This Grain I annually sow in my Fields on diversities of Soils, andthereby have brought to my knowledge several differences arisingtherefrom. On our Red Clays this Grain generally comes off reddish at bothends, and sometimes all over, with a thick skin and tuff nature, somewhatlike the Soil it grows in, and therefore not so valuable as that ofcontrary qualities, nor are the black blewish Marly Clays of the Vale muchbetter, but Loams are, and Gravels better than them, as all the Chalks arebetter then Gravels; on these two last Soils the Barley acquires a whitishBody, a thin skin, a short plump kernel, and a (unreadable) flower,which occasions those, fine pale and amber Malts made at _Dunstable_,_Tring_ and _Dagnal_ from the Barley that comes off the white and gravellyGrounds about those Places; for it is certain there is as much differencein Barley as in Wheat or other Grain, from the sort it comes off, asappears by the excellent Wheats that grow in the marly vale Earths, Peasin Sands, and Barley in Gravels and Chalks, &c. For our Mother Earth, asit is destinated to the service of Man in the production of Vegetables, iscomposed of various sorts of Soils for different Seeds to grow therein.And since Providence has been pleased to allow Man this great privilegefor the imployment of his skill and labour to improve the same to hisadvantage; it certainly behoves us to acquaint ourselves with its severalnatures, and how to adapt an agreeable Grain and Manure to their naturalSoil, as being the very foundation of enjoying good and bad Malts. This isobvious by parallel Deductions from Turneps sown on rank clayey loamyGrounds, dressed with noxious Dungs that render them bitter, tuff, andnauseous, while those that grow on Gravels, Sands and Chalky Loams underthe assistance of the Fold, or Soot, Lime, Ashes, Hornshavings, &c. aresweet (unreadable) and pleasant. 'Tis the same also with salads,Asparagus, Cabbages, Garden-beans and all other culinary Ware, that comeoff those rich Grounds glutted with the great quantities of _London_ andother rank Dungs which are not near so pure, sweet and wholsome, as thoseproduced from Virgin mould and other healthy Earths and Manures.There is likewise another reason that has brought a disreputation on someof the Chiltern-barley, and that is, the too often sowing of one and thesame piece of Ground, whereby its spirituous, nitrous and sulphureousqualities are exhausted and worn out, by the constant attraction of itsbest juices for the nutriment of the Grain: To supply which, greatquantities of Dungs are often incorporated with such Earths, whereby theybecome impregnated with four, adulterated, unwholsome qualities, that soaffect the Barley that grows therein, as to render it incapable of makingsuch pure and sweet Malts, as that which is sown in the openChampaign-fields, whose Earths are constantly rested every third Yearcalled the Fallow-season, in order to discharge their crude, phlegmatickand sour property, by the several turnings that the Plough gives them partof a Winter and one whole Summer, which exposes the rough, clotty looseparts of the Ground, and by degrees brings them into a condition of makinga lodgment of those saline benefits that arise from the Earths, andafterwards fall down, and redound so much to the benefit of all Vegetablesthat grow therein, as being the essence and spring of Life to all thingsthat have root, and tho' they are first exhaled by the Sun in vapour fromthe Earth as the spirit or breath thereof, yet is it return'd again inSnows, Hails, Dews, etc. more than in Rains, by which the surface of theGlobe is saturated; from whence it reascends in the juices of Vegetables,and enters into all those productions as food, and nourishment, which theCreation supplies.Here then may appear the excellency of steeping Seed-barley in a liquorlately invented, that impregnates and loads it with Nitre and other Saltsthat are the nearest of all others to the true and original Spirit or Saltof the Earth, and therefore in a great measure supplies the want thereofboth in inclosure and open Field; for even in this last it is sometimesvery scarce, and in but small quantities, especially after a hot drySummer and mild Winter, when little or no Snows have fell to cover theEarth and keep this Spirit in; by which and great Frosts it is often muchencreased and then shews itself in the warmth of well Waters, that areoften seen to wreak in the cold Seasons. Now since all Vegetables more orless partake of those qualities that the Soil and Manures abound with inwhich they grow; I therefore infer that all Barley so imbibed, improvesits productions by the ascension of those saline spirituous particles thatare thus lodged in the Seed when put into the Ground, and are part of thenourishment the After-Crop enjoys; and for this reason I doubt not, butwhen time has got the ascendant of prejudice, the whole Nation will comeinto the practice of the invaluable Receipt published in two Books,entituled, _Chiltern and Vale Farming Explained_, and, _The PracticalFarmer_; both writ by _William Ellis_ of _Little Gaddesden_ near_Hempstead_ in _Hertfordshire_, not only for Barley, but other Grains.But notwithstanding Barley may grow on a light Soil with a proper Manure;and improved by the liquor of this Receipt, yet this Grain may be damagedor spoiled by being mown too soon, which may afterwards be discovered byits shrivelled and lean body that never will make right good Malt; or ifit is mown at a proper time, and if it be housed damp, or wettish, it willbe apt to heat and mow-burn, and then it will never make so good Malt,because it will not spire, nor come so regularly on the floor as thatwhich was inned dry.Again, I have known one part of a Barley-crop almost green at Harvest,another part ripe, and another part between both, tho' it was all sown atonce, occasion'd by the several situations of the Seed in the Ground, andthe succeeding Droughts. The deepest came up strong and was ripe soonest,the next succeeded; but the uppermost, for want of Rain and Cover, some ofit grew not at all, and the rest was green at Harvest. Now theseirregularities are greatly prevented and cured by the application of theingredients mentioned in the Receipt, which infuses such a moisture intothe body of the Seed, as with the help of a little Rain and the many Dews,makes it spire, take root and grow, when others are ruined for want of theassistance of such steeping.Barley like other Grain will also degenerate, and become rank, lean andsmall bodied, if the same Seed is sown too often in the Soil; 'tistherefore that the best Farmers not only change the Seed every time, buttake due care to have it off a contrary Soil that they sow it in to; thismakes several in my neighbourhood every Year buy their Barley-seed in theVale of _Ailsbury_, that grew there on the black clayey marly Loams, tosow in Chalks, Gravels, &c. Others every second Year will go from hence to_Fullham_ and buy the Forward or Rath-ripe Barley that grows there onSandy-ground; both which Methods are great Improvements of this Corn, andwhether it be for sowing or malting, the plump, weighty and white Barley-corn, is in all respects much kinder than the lean flinty Sorts.CHAP. II_Of making_ Malts.As I have described the Ground that returns the best Barley, I now come totreat of making it into Malt; to do which, the Barley is put into a leadenor tyled Cistern that holds five, ten or more Quarters, that is coveredwith water four or six Inches above the Barley to allow for its Swell;here it lyes five or six Tides as the Malster calls it, reckoning twelveHours to the Tide, according as the Barley is in body or in dryness; forthat which comes off Clays, or has been wash'd and damag'd by Rains,requires less time than the dryer Grain that was inned well and grew onGravels or Chalks; the smooth plump Corn imbibing the water more kindly,when the lean and steely Barley will not so naturally; but to know when itis enough, is to take a Corn end-ways between the Fingers and gently crushit, and if it is in all parts mellow, and the husk opens or starts alittle from the body of the Corn, then it is enough: The nicety of this isa material Point; for if it is infus'd too much, the sweetness of the Maltwill be greatly taken off, and yield the less Spirit, and so will causedeadness and sourness in Ale or Beer in a short time, for the goodness ofthe Malt contributes much to the preservation of all Ales and Beers. Thenthe water must be drain'd from it very well, and it will come equal andbetter on the floor, which may be done in twelve or sixteen Hours intemperate weather, but in cold, near thirty. From the Cistern it is putinto a square Hutch or Couch, where it must lye thirty Hours for theOfficer to take his Gage, who allows four Bushels in the Score for theSwell in this or the Cistern, then it must be work'd Night and Day in oneor two Heaps as the weather is cold or hot, and turn'd every four, six oreight Hours, the outward part inwards and the bottom upwards, alwayskeeping a clear floor that the Corn that lies next to it be not chill'd;and as soon as it begins to come or spire, then turn it every three, fouror five Hours, as was done before according to the temper of the Air,which greatly governs this management, and as it comes or works more, somust the Heap be spreaded and thinned larger to cool it. Thus it may lyeand be work'd on the floor in several parallels, two or three Foot thick,ten or more Foot broad, and fourteen or more in length to Chip and Spire;but not too much nor too soft; and when it is come enough, it is to beturned twelve or sixteen times in twenty-four Hours, if the Season iswarm, as in _March, April_ or _May_; and when it is fixed and the Rootbegins to be dead, then it must be thickned again and carefully kept oftenturned and work'd, that the growing of the Root may not revive, and thisis better done with the Shoes off than on; and here the Workman's Art andDiligence in particular is tryed in keeping the floor clear and turningthe Malt often, that it neither moulds nor Aker-spires, that is, that theBlade does not grow out at the opposite end of the Root; for if it does,the flower and strength of the Malt is gone, and nothing left behind butthe Aker-spire, Husk and Tail: Now when it is at this degree and fit forthe Kiln, it is often practised to put it into a Heap and let it lyetwelve Hours before it is turned, to heat and mellow, which will muchimprove the Malt if it is done with moderation, and after that time itmust be turned every six Hours during twenty four; but if it isoverheated, it will become like Grease and be spoiled, or at least causethe Drink to be unwholsome; when this Operation is over, it then must beput on the Kiln to dry four, six or twelve Hours, according to the natureof the Malt, for the pale sort requires more leisure and less fire thanthe amber or brown sorts: Three Inches thick was formerly thought asufficient depth for the Malt to lye on the Hair-cloth, but now six isoften allowed it to a fault; fourteen or sixteen Foot square will dryabout two Quarters if the Malt lyes four Inches thick, and here it shouldbe turned every two, three or four Hours keeping the Hair-cloth clear: Thetime of preparing it from the Cistern to the Kiln is uncertain; accordingto the Season of the Year; in moderate weather three Weeks is oftensufficient. If the Exciseman takes his Gage on the floor he allows ten inthe Score, but he sometimes Gages in Cistern, Couch, Floor and Kiln, andwhere he can make most, there he fixes his Charge: When the Malt is dryed,it must not cool on the Kiln, but be directly thrown off, not into a Heap,but spreaded wide in an airy place, till it is thoroughly cool, then putit into a Heap or otherwise dispose of it.There are several methods used in drying of Malts, as the IronPlate-frame, the Tyle-frame, that are both full of little Holes: TheBrass-wyred and Iron-wyred Frame, and the Hair-cloth; the Iron and Tyledone, were chiefly Invented for drying of brown Malts and saving of Fuel,for these when they come to be thorough hot will make the Corns crack andjump by the fierceness of their heat, so that they will be roasted orscorch'd in a little time, and after they are off the Kiln, to plump thebody of the Corn and make it take the Eye, some will sprinkle water overit that it may meet with the better Market. But if such Malt is not usedquickly, it will slacken and lose its Spirits to a great degree, andperhaps in half a Year or less may be taken by the Whools and spoiled:Such hasty dryings or scorchings are also apt to bitter the Malt byburning its skin, and therefore these Kilns are not so much used now asformerly: The Wyre-frames indeed are something better, yet they are apt toscorch the outward part of the Corn, that cannot be got off so soon as theHair-cloth admits of, for these must be swept, when the other is onlyturned at once; however these last three ways are now in much request fordrying pale and amber Malts, because their fire may be kept with moreleisure, and the Malt more gradually and truer dyed, but by many theHair-cloth is reckoned the best of all.Malts are dryed with several sorts of Fuel; as the Coak, Welch-coal,Straw, Wood and Fern, &c. But the Coak is reckoned by most to exceed allothers for making Drink of the finest Flavour and pale Colour, because itsends no smoak forth to hurt the Malt with any offensive tang, that Wood,Fern and Straw are apt to do in a lesser or greater degree; but there is adifference even in what is call'd Coak, the right sort being large Pit-coal chark'd or burnt in some measure to a Cinder, till all the Sulphur isconsumed and evaporated away, which is called Coak, and this when it istruly made is the best of all other Fuels; but if there is but one Cinderas big as an Egg, that is not thoroughly cured, the smoak of this one iscapable of doing a little damage, and this happens too often by thenegligence or avarice of the Coak-maker: There is another sort by somewrongly called Coak, and rightly named Culme or Welch-coal, from _Swanzey_in _Pembrokeshire_, being of a hard stony substance in small bitsresembling a shining Coal, and will burn without smoak, and by itssulphureous effluvia cast a most excellent whiteness on all the outwardparts of the grainy body: In _Devonshire_ I have seen their Marble or greyFire-stone burnt into Lime with the strong fire that this Culme makes, andboth this and the Chark'd Pit-coal affords a most sweet moderate andcertain fire to all Malt that is dryed by it.Straw is the next sweetest Fuel, but Wood and Fern worst of all.Some I have known put a Peck or more of Peas, and malt them with fiveQuarters of Barley, and they'll greatly mellow the Drink, and so willBeans; but they won't come so soon, nor mix so conveniently with the Malt,as the Pea will.I knew a Farmer, when he sends five Quarters of Barley to be Malted, putsin half a Peck or more of Oats amongst them, to prove he has justice donehim by the Maker, who is hereby confin'd not to Change his Malt by reasonothers won't like such a mixture.But there is an abuse sometimes committed by a necessitous Malster, who tocome by Malt sooner than ordinary, makes use of Barley before it isthoroughly sweated in the Mow, and then it never makes right Malt, butwill be steely and not yield a due quantity of wort, as I knew it oncedone by a Person that thrashed the Barley immediately from the Cart as itwas brought out of the Field, but they that used its Malt suffered not alittle, for it was impossible it should be good, because it did notthoroughly Chip or Spire on the floor, which caused this sort of Malt,when the water was put to it in the Mash-tub, to swell up and absorb theLiquor, but not return its due quantity again, as true Malt would, nor wasthe Drink of this Malt ever good in the Barrel, but remain'd a raw insipidbeer, past the Art of Man to Cure, because this, like Cyder made fromApples directly off the Tree, that never sweated out their phlegmatickcrude juice in the heap, cannot produce a natural Liquor from suchunnatural management; for barley certainly is not fit to make Malt ofuntil it is fully mellowed and sweated in the Mow, and the Season of theYear is ready for it, without both which there can be no assurance of goodMalt: Several instances of this untimely making Malt I have known tohappen, that has been the occasion of great quantities of bad Ales andBeers, for such Malt, retaining none of its Barley nature, or that theSeason of the Year is not cold enough to admit of its natural working onthe Floor, is not capable of producing a true Malt, it will cause itsDrink to stink in the cask instead of growing fit for use, as not havingits genuine Malt-nature to cure and preserve it, which all good Maltscontribute to as well as the Hop.There is another damage I have known accrue to the Buyer of Malt byMellilet, a most stinking Weed that grows amongst some Barley, and is somischievously predominant, as to taint it to a sad degree because itsblack Seed like that of an Onion, being lesser than the Barley, cannot beentirely separated, which obliges it to be malted with the Barley, andmakes the Drink so heady that it is apt to fuddle the unwary by drinking asmall quantity. This Weed is so natural to some Ground that the Farmerdespairs of ever extirpating it, and is to be avoided as much as possible,because it very much hurts the Drink that is made from Malt mixed with it,by its nauseous Scent and Taste, as may be perceived by the Ointment madewith it that bears its Name: I knew a Victualler that bought a parcel ofMalt that this weed was amongst, and it spoiled all the Brewings and Saleof the Drink, for it's apt to cause Fevers, Colicks and other Distempersin the Body.Darnel is a rampant Weed and grows much amongst some Barley, especially inthe bad Husbandman's Ground, and most where it is sown with theSeed-barley: It does the least harm amongst Malt, because it adds astrength to it, and quickly intoxicates, if there is much in it; but wherethere is but little, the Malster regards it not, for the sake of itsinebriating quality.There are other Weeds or Seeds that annoy the Barley; but as the Screen,Sieve and throwing will take most of them out, there does not require herea Detail of their Particulars. Oats malted as Barley is, will make a weak,soft, mellow and pleasant Drink, but Wheat when done so, will produce astrong heady nourishing well-tasted and fine Liquor, which is now morepractised then ever.CHAP. III._To know good from bad_ Malts.This is a Matter of great Importance to all Brewers, both publick andprivate, for 'tis common for the Seller to cry all is good, but theBuyer's Case is different; wherefore it is prudential to endeavour to beMaster of this Knowledge, but I have heard a great Malster that livedtowards _Ware_, say, he knew a grand Brewer, that wetted near two hundredQuarters a Week, was not a judge of good and bad Malts, without which 'tisimpossible to draw a true length of Ale or Beer. To do this I know but offew Ways, _First_, By the Bite; Is to break the Malt Corn across betweenthe Teeth, in the middle of it or at both Ends, and if it tasteth mellowand sweet, has a round body, breaks soft, is full of flower all itslength, smells well and has a thin skin, then it is good; _Secondly_, ByWater; Is to take a Glass near full, and put in some Malt; and if itswims, it is right, but if any sinks to the bottom, then it is not trueMalt, but steely and retains somewhat of its Barley nature; yet I must ownthis is not an infallible Rule, because if a Corn of Malt is crack'd,split or broke, it will then take the water and sink, but there may anallowance be given for such incidents, and still room enough to make ajudgment. _Thirdly_, Malt that is truly made will not be hard and steely,but of so mellow a Nature, that if forced against a dry Board, will markand cast a white Colour almost like Chalk. _Fourthly_, Malt that is notrightly made will be part of it of a hard Barley nature, and weigh heavierthan that which is true Malt.CHAP. IV. _Of the Nature and Use of Pale, Amber and Brown_ Malts.The pale Malt is the slowest and slackest dryed of any, and where it hashad a leisure fire, a sufficient time allowed it on the Kiln, and a duecare taken of it; the flower of the grain will remain in its fullquantity, and thereby produce a greater length of wort, than the brownhigh dryed Malt, for which reason it is sold for one or two shillings_per_ Quarter more than that: This pale Malt is also the most nutritioussort to the body of all others, as being in this state the most simple andnearest to its Original Barley-corn, that will retain an Alcalous andBalsamick quality much longer than the brown sort; the tender drying ofthis Malt bringing its body into so soft a texture of Parts, that most ofthe great Brewers, brew it with Spring and Well-waters, whose hard andbinding Properties they think agrees best with this loose-bodied Malt,either in Ales or Beer's and which will also dispense with hotter watersin brewing of it, than the brown Malt can. The amber-colour'd Malt is thatwhich is dryed in a medium degree, between the pale and the brown, and isvery much in use, as being free of either extream. Its colour is pleasant,its taste agreeable and its nature wholsome, which makes it be prefer'dby many as the best of Malts; this by some is brewed either with hard orsoft waters, or a mixture of both.The brown Malt is the soonest and highest dryed of any, even till it is sohard, that it's difficult to bite some of its Corns asunder, and is oftenso crusted or burnt, that the farinous part loses a great deal of itsessential Salts and vital Property, which frequently deceives its ignorantBrewer, that hopes to draw as much Drink from a quarter of this, as hedoes from pale or amber sorts: This Malt by some is thought to occasionthe Gravel and Stone, besides what is commonly called the Heart-burn; andis by its steely nature less nourishing than the pale or amber Malts,being very much impregnated with the fiery fumiferous Particles of theKiln, and therefore its Drink sooner becomes sharp and acid than that madefrom the pale or amber sorts, if they are all fairly brewed: For thisreason the _London_ Brewers mostly use the _Thames_ or _New River_ watersto brew this Malt with, for the sake of its soft nature, whereby it agreeswith the harsh qualities of it better than any of the well or other hardSorts, and makes a luscious Ale for a little while, and a But-beer thatwill keep very well five or six Months, but after that time it generallygrows stale, notwithstanding there be ten or twelve Bushels allowed to theHogshead, and it be hopp'd accordingly.Pale and amber Malts dryed with Coak or Culm, obtains a more clean brightpale Colour than if dryed with any other Fuel, because there is not smoakto darken and sully their Skins or Husks, and give them an ill relish,that those Malts little or more have, which are dryed with Straw, Wood, orFern, &c. The Coak or _Welch_ Coal also makes more true and compleat Malt,as I have before hinted, than any other Fuel, because its fire gives botha gentle and certain Heat, whereby the Corns are in all their Partsgradually dryed, and therefore of late these Malts have gained such aReputation that great quantities have been consumed in most Parts of theNation for their wholsome Natures and sweet fine Taste: These make suchfine Ales and But-beers, as has tempted several of our Malsters in myNeighbour-hood to burn Coak or Culm at a great expence of Carriage thirtyMiles from _London_.Next to the Coak-dryed Malt, the Straw-dryed is the sweetest and besttasted: This I must own is sometimes well Malted where the Barley, Wheat,Straw, Conveniencies and the Maker's Skill are good; but as the fire ofthe Straw is not so regular as the Coak, the Malt is attended with moreuncertainty in its making, because it is difficult to keep it to amoderate and equal Heat, and also exposes the Malt in some degree to thetaste of the smoak.Brown Malts are dryed with Straw, Wood and Fern, &c. the Straw-dryed isnot the best, but the Wood sort has a most unnatural Taste, that few canbear with, but the necessitous, and those that are accustomed to itsstrong smoaky tang; yet is it much used in some of the Western Parts of_England_, and many thousand Quarters of this Malt has been formerly usedin _London_ for brewing the Butt-keeping-beers with, and that because itsold for two Shillings _per_ Quarter cheaper than the Straw-dryed Malt,nor was this Quality of the Wood-dryed Malt much regarded by some of itsBrewers, for that its ill Taste is lost in nine or twelve Months, by theAge of the Beer, and the strength of the great Quantity of Hops that wereused in its Preservation.The Fern-dryed Malt is also attended with a rank disagreeable Taste fromthe smoak of this Vegetable, with which many Quarters of Malt are dryed,as appears by the great Quantities annually cut by Malsters on ourCommons, for the two prevalent Reasons of cheapness and plenty.At _Bridport_ in _Dorsetshire_, I knew an Inn-keeper use half Pale andhalf Brown Malt for Brewing his Butt-beers, that, proved to my Palate thebest I ever drank on the Road, which I think may be accounted for, in thatthe Pale being the slackest, and the Brown the hardest dryed, must producea mellow good Drink by the help of a requisite Age, that will reduce thoseextreams to a proper Quality.CHAP. V._Of the Nature of several Waters and their use in Brewing. And first ofWell-waters_.Water next to Malt is what by course comes here under Consideration as aMatter of great Importance in Brewing of wholsome fine Malt-liquors, andis of such Consequence that it concerns every one to know the nature ofthe water he Brews with, because it is the Vehicle by which the nutritiousand pleasant Particles of the Malt and Hop are conveyed into our Bodies,and there becomes a diluter of our Food: Now the more simple and freerevery water is from foreign Particles, the better it will answer thoseEnds and Purposes; for, as Dr_.Mead_ observes, some waters are so loadedwith stony Corpuscles, that even the Pipes thro' which they are carried,in time are incrusted and stopt up by them, and is of that petrifyingnature as to breed the Stone in the Bladder, which many of the _Parisians_have been instances of, by using this sort of water out of the River_Seine_. And of this Nature is another at _Rowel_ in _Northamptonshire_,which in no great distance of time so clogs the Wheel of an overshot Millthere, that they are forced with, convenient Instruments to cut way forits Motion; and what makes it still more evident, is the sight of thoseincrusted Sides of the Tea-kettles, that the hard Well-waters are theoccasion of, by being often boiled in them: And it is further related bythe same Doctor, that a Gentlewoman afflicted with frequent returns ofviolent Colick Pains was cured by the Advice of _Van Helmont_, only byleaving off drinking Beer brewed with Well-water; It's true, such a fluidhas a greater force and aptness to extract the tincture out of Malt, thanis to be had in the more innocent and soft Liquor of Rivers: But for thisvery reason it ought not, unless upon meer necessity, to be made use of;this Quality being owing to the mineral Particles and alluminous Saltswith which it is impregnated. For these waters thus saturated, will bytheir various gravities in circulation, deposit themselves in one part ofthe animal Body or other, which has made some prove the goodness of Waterby the lightness of its body in the Water Scales, now sold in several ofthe _London_ Shops, in order to avoid the Scorbutick, Colicky,Hypochondriack, and other ill Effects of the Clayey and other grossParticles of stagnating Well-waters, and the calculous Concretions ofothers; and therefore such waters ought to be mistrusted more than any,where they are not pure clear and soft or that don't arise from goodChalks or stony Rocks, that are generally allowed to afford the best ofall the Well sorts.Spring-waters are in general liable to partake of those minerals thro'which they pass, and are salubrious or mischievous accordingly. At_Uppingham_ in _Rutland_, their water is said to come off anAllum-rock, and so tints their Beer with its saline Quality, that it iseasily tasted at the first Draught. And at _Dean_ in _Northamptonshire_, Ihave seen the very Stones colour the rusty Iron by the constant running ofa Spring-water; but that which will Lather with Soap, or such soft waterthat percolates through Chalk, or a Grey Fire-stone, is generallyaccounted best, for Chalks in this respect excell all other Earths, inthat it administers nothing unwholsome to the perfluent waters, butundoubtedly absorps by its drying spungy Quality any ill minerals that mayaccompany the water that runs thro' them. For which reason they throw in,great Quantities of Chalk into their Wells at _Ailsbury_ to soften theirwater, which coming off a black Sand-stone, is so hard and sharp that itwill often turn their Beer sour in a Week's time, so that in its OriginalState it's neither fit to Wash nor Brew with, but so long as the Alcaloussoft Particles of the Chalk holds good, they put it to both uses.River-waters are less liable to be loaded with metallick, petrifying,saline and other insanous Particles of the Earth, than the Well or Springsorts are, especially at some distance from the Spring-head, because theRain water mixes with and softens it, and are also much cured by the Sun'sheat and the Air's power, for which reason I have known several so strict,that they won't let their Horses drink near the first rise of some ofthem; this I have seen the sad Effects of, and which has obliged me toavoid two that run cross a Road in _Bucks_ and _Hertfordshire_: But intheir runnings they often collect gross Particles from ouzy muddymixtures, particularly near Town, that make the Beer subject to newfermentations, and grow foul upon alteration of weather as the _Thames_water generlly does; yet is this for its softness much better than thehard sort, however both these waters are used by some Brewers as I shallhereafter observe; but where a River-water can be had clear in a dry time,when no great Rain has lately fell out of Rivulets or Rivers that have aGravelly, Chalky, Sandy or Stone-bottom free from the Disturbance ofCattle, &c. and in good Air, as that of _Barkhamstead St. Peters_ in_Hertfordshire_ is; it may then justly claim the name of a most excellentwater for Brewing, and will make a stronger Drink with the same quantityof Malt than any of the Well-waters; insomuch that that of the _Thames_has been proved to make as strong Beer with seven Bushels of Malt, asWell-water with eight; and so are all River-waters in a proportionabledegree, and where they can be obtain'd clean and pure, Drink may be drawnfine in a few Days after Tunning.Rain-water is very soft, of a most simple and pure nature, and the bestDiluter of any, especially if received free from Dirt, and the Salt ofMortar that often mixes with it as it runs off tyled Roofs; this is veryagreeable for brewing of Ales that are not to be kept a great while, butfor Beers that are to remain some time in the Casks, it is not so, well,as being apt to putrify the soonest of any.Pond-waters; this includes all standing waters chiefly from Rain, and aregood or bad as they happen; for where there is a clean bottom, and thewater lies undisturbed from the tread of Cattle, or too many Fish, in anopen sound Air, in a large quantity, and where the Sun has free access; itthen comes near, if not quite as good as Rain or River-waters, as is thatof _Blew-pot_ Pond on the high Green at _Gaddesden_ in _Hertfordshire_ andmany others, which are often prefer'd for Brewing, even beyond many of thesoft Well-waters about them. But where it is in a small quantity, or fullof Fish (especially the sling Tench) or is so disturbed by Cattle as toforce up Mud and Filth; it is then the most foul and disagreeable of allothers: So is it likewise in long dry Seasons when our Pond-waters are solow as obliges us to strain it thro' Sieves before we can use it, to takeout the small red Worms and other Corruptions, that our stagnant watersare generally then too full of. The latest and best Doctors have so farscrutinized into the prime Cause of our _British_ malady the Scurvy, as toaffirm its first rise is from our unwholesome stagnating waters, andespecially those that come off a clayey surface, as there are about_Londonderry_ and _Amsterdam_, for that where the waters are worst, therethis Distemper is most common, so that in their Writings they have put itout of all doubt, that most of our complicated symptoms that are rank'dunder this general Name, if they don't take their beginning from suchwater, do own it to be their chief Cause.CHAP. VI. _Of Grinding_ Malts.As trifling as this Article in Brewing may seem at first it very worthilydeserves the notice of all concern'd therein, for on this depends much thegood of our Drink, because if it is ground too small the flower of theMalt will be the easier and more freely mix with the water, and then willcause the wort to run thick, and therefore the Malt must be only justbroke in the Mill, to make it emit its Spirit gradually, and incorporateits flower with the water in such a manner that first a stout Beer, thenan Ale, and afterwards a small Beer may be had at one and the sameBrewing, and the wort run off fine and clear to the last. Many arelikewise so sagacious as to grind their brown Malt a Fortnight before theyuse it, and keep it in a dry Place from the influence of too moist an Air,that it may become mellower by losing in a great measure the fury of itsharsh fiery Particles, and its steely nature, which this sort of Maltacquires on the Kiln; however this as well as many other hard Bodies maybe reduced by Time and Air into a more soluble, mellow and soft Condition,and then it will imbibe the water and give a natural kind tincture morefreely, by which a greater quantity and stronger Drink may be made, thanif it was used directly from the Mill, and be much smoother and bettertasted. But the pale Malt will be fit for use at a Week's end, because theleisureness of their drying endows them with a softness from the time theyare taken off the Kiln to the time they are brewed, and supplies in themwhat Time and Air must do in the brown sorts. This method of grinding Maltso long before-hand can't be so conveniently practised by some of thegreat Brewers, because several of them Brew two or three times a Week, butnow most of them out of good Husbandry grind their Malts into the Tun bythe help of a long descending wooden Spout, and here they save the Chargeof emptying or uncasing it out of the Bin (which formerly they used to dobefore this new way was discovered) and also the waste of a great deal ofthe Malt-flower that was lost when carryed in Baskets, whereas now theCover of the Tun presents all that Damage In my common Brewhouse at_London_ I ground my Malt between two large Stones by the Horse-mill thatwith one Horse would grind [blank space] quarters an Hour, But in theCountry I use a steel Hand-mill, that Cost at first forty Shillings;which will by the help of only one Man grind six or eight Bushels in anHour, and will last a Family many Years without hardning or cutting: Thereare some old-fashion'd stone Hand-mills in being, that some are Votariesfor and prefer to the Iron ones, because they alledge that these break theCorn's body, when the Iron ones only cut it in two, which occasions theMalt so broke by the Stones, to give the water a more easy, free andregular Power to extract its Virtue, than the Cut-malt can that is moreconfin'd within its Hull. Notwithstanding the Iron ones are now mostly inUse for their great Dispatch and long Duration. In the Country it isfrequently done by some to throw a Sack of Malt on a Stone or Brick-flooras soon as it is ground, and there let it lye, giving it one turn, for aDay or two, that the Stones or Bricks may draw out the fiery Quality itreceived from the Kiln, and give the Drink a soft mild Taste.CHAP. VII._Of Brewing in general_.Brewing, like several other Arts is prostituted to the opinionatedIgnorance of many conceited Pretenders, who if they have but seen or beenconcern'd in but one Brewing, and that only one Bushel of Malt, assume theName of a Brewer and dare venture on several afterwards, as believing itno other Task, than more Labour, to Brew a great deal as well as a little;from hence it partly is, that we meet with such hodge-podge Ales andBeers, as are not only disagreeable in Taste and Foulness, but indeedunwholsome to the Body of Man, for as it is often drank thick and voidedthin, the Feces or gross part must in my Opinion remain behind in somedegree. Now what the Effects of that may be, I must own I am not Physicianenough to explain, but shrewdly suspect it may be the Cause of Stones,Colicks, Obstructions, and several other Chronical Distempers; for if weconsider that the sediments of Malt-liquors are the refuse of a corruptedGrain, loaded with the igneous acid Particles of the Malt, and then againwith the corrosive sharp Particles of the Yeast, it must consequently bevery pernicious to the _British_ human Body especially, which certainlysuffers much from the animal Salts of the great Quantities of Flesh thatwe Eat more than People of any other Nation whatsoever; and therefore aremore then ordinarily obligated not to add the scorbutick mucilaginousQualities of such gross unwholsome Particles, that every one makes alodgment of in their Bodies, as the Liquors they drink are more or lessthick; for in plain Truth, no Malt-liquor can be good without it's fine.The late Curious _Simon Harcourt_ Esq; of _Penly_, whom I have had thehonour to drink some of his famous _October_ with, thought the true Art ofBrewing of such Importance, that it is said to Cost him near twenty Poundsto have an old Days-man taught it by a _Welch_ Brewer, and sure it wasthis very Man exceeded all others in these Parts afterwards in the Brewingof that which he called his October_ Beer. So likewise in _London_ theylay such stress on this Art, that many have thought it worth their whileto give one or two hundred Guineas with an Apprentice: This Considerationalso made an Ambassador give an extraordinary Encouragement to one of myAcquaintance to go over with him, that was a great Master of this Science.But notwithstanding all that can be said that relates to this Subject,there are so many Incidents attending Malt-liquors, that it has puzledseveral expert Men to account for their difference, though brewed by thesame Brewer, with the same Malt, Hops and Water, and in the same Month andTown, and tapp'd at the same time: The Beer of one being fine, strong andwell Tasted, while the others have not had any worth drinking, now thismay be owing to the different Weather in the same Month, that might causean Alteration in the working of the Liquors, or that the Cellar may not beso convenient, or that the Water was more disturbed by Winds or Rains, &c.But it has been observed that where a Gentleman has imployed one Brewerconstantly, and uses the same sort of Ingredients, and the Beer kept indry Vaults or Cellars that have two or three Doors; the Drink has beengenerally good. And where such Malt-liquors are kept in Butts, more timeis required to ripen, meliorate and fine them, than those kept inHogsheads, because the greater quantity must have the longer time; so alsoa greater quantity will preserve itself better than a lesser one, and onthis account the Butt and Hogshead are the two best sized Casks of allothers; but all under a Hogshead hold rather too small a quantity to keeptheir Bodies. The Butt is certainly a most noble Cask for this use, asbeing generally set upright, whereby it maintains a large Cover of Yeast,that greatly contributes to the keeping in the Spirits of the Beer, admitsof a most convenient broaching in the middle and its lower part, and byits broad level Bottom, gives a better lodgment to the fining andpreserving Ingredients, than any other Cask whatsoever that lyes in, thelong Cross-form. Hence it partly is, that the common Butt-beer is at thistime in greater Reputation than ever in _London_, and the Home-brew'dDrinks out of Credit; because the first is better cured in its Brewing, inits Quantity, in its Cask, and in its Age; when the latter has been loadedwith the pernicious Particles of great Quantities of Yeast, of a shortAge, and kept in small Casks, that confines its Owner, only to WinterBrewing and Sale, as not being capable of sustaining the Heat of theWeather, for that the acidity of the Yeast brings on a sudden hardness andstaleness of the Ale, which to preserve in its mild Aley Taste, will notadmit of any great Quantity of Hops; and this is partly the reason thatthe handful of Salt which the _Plymouth_ Brewers put into their Hogshead,hinders their Ale from keeping, as I shall hereafter take notice of.CHAP. VIII._The_ London _Method of Brewing_.In a great Brewhouse that I was concern'd in, they wetted or used aconsiderable Quantity of Malt in one Week in Brewing Stout-beer, commonButt-beer, Ale and small Beer, for which purpose they have River and WellWaters, which they take in several degrees of Heat, as the Malt, Goods andGrain are in a condition to receive them, and according to the Practicethere I shall relate the following Particulars, viz._For Stout Butt Beer_.This is the strongest Butt-Beer that is Brewed from brown Malt, and oftensold for forty Shillings the Barrel, or six Pound the Butt out of thewholesale Cellars: The Liquor (for it is Sixpence forfeit in the _London_Brewhouse if the word Water is named) in the Copper designed for the firstMash, has a two Bushel Basket, or more, of the most hully Malt throw'dover it, to cover its Top and forward its Boiling; this must be made veryhot, almost ready to boil, yet not so as to blister, for then it will bein too high a Heat; but as an indication of this, the foul part of theLiquor will ascend, and the Malt swell up, and then it must be parted,look'd into and felt with the Finger or back of the Hand, and if theLiquor is clear and can but be just endured, it is then enough, and theStoker must damp his fire as soon as possible by throwing in a good Parcelof fresh Coals, and shutting his Iron vent Doors, if there are any;immediately on this they let as much cold Liquor or Water run into theCopper as will make it all of a Heat, somewhat more than Blood-warm, thisthey Pump over, or let it pass by a Cock into an upright wooden squareSpout or Trunk, and it directly rises thro' the Holes of a false Bottominto the Malt, which is work'd by several Men with Oars for about half anHour, and is called the first and stiff Mash: While this is doing, thereis more Liquor heating in the Copper that must not be let into the mashTun till it is very sharp, almost ready to boil, with this they Mashagain, then cover it with several Baskets of Malt, and let it stand anHour before it runs into the Under-back, which when boiled an Hour and ahalf with a good quantity of Hops makes this Stout. The next is Mash'dwith a cooler Liquor, then a sharper, and the next Blood-warm or quiteCold; by which alternate degrees of Heat, a Quantity of small Beer is madeafter the Stout._For Brewing strong brown Ale called_ Stitch.This is most of it the first running of the Malt, but yet of a longerLength than is drawn for the Stout; It has but few Hops boiled in it, andis sold for Eight-pence _per_ Gallon at the Brewhouse out of the Tun, andis generally made to amend the common brown Ale with, on particularOccasions. This Ale I remember was made use of by [Blank space] _Medlicot_Esq; in the beginning of a Consumption, and I heard him say, it did himvery great Service, for he lived many Years afterwards._For Brewing common brown Ale and Starting Beer_.They take the Liquors from the brown Ale as for the Stout, but draw agreater Quantity from the Malt, than for Stout or Stitch, and after thefifth and second Mash they Cap the Goods with fresh Malt to keep in theSpirit and Boil it an Hour; after this, small Beer is made of the sameGoods. Thus also the common brown Starting Butt-Beer is Brewed, onlyboiled with more Hops an Hour and a half, and work'd cooler and longerthan the brown Ale, and a shorter Length drawn from the Malt. But it isoften practised after the brown Ale, and where a Quantity of small Beer iswanted, or that it is to be Brewed better than ordinary, to put so muchfresh Malt on the Goods as will answer that purpose._For Brewing Pale and Amber Ales and Beers_.As the brown Malts are Brewed with River, these are Brewed with Well orSpring Liquors. The Liquors are by some taken sharper for pale than brownMalts, and after the first scalding Liquor is put over, some lower therest by degrees to the last which is quite Cold, for their small Beer; soalso for Butt-Beers there is no other difference than the addition of moreHops, and boiling, and the method of working. But the reasons for Brewingpale Malts with Spring or hard Well waters, I have mentioned in my secondBook of Brewing._For Brewing Entire Guile Small Beer_.On the first Liquor they throw some hully Malt to shew the break of it,and when it is very sharp, they let in some cold Liquor, and run it intothe Tun milk warm; this is mash'd with thirty or forty pulls of the Oar,and let stand till the second Liquor is ready, which must be almostscalding hot to the back of the Hand, then run it by the Cock into theTun, mash it up and let it stand an Hour before it is spended off into theUnder-back: These two pieces of Liquor will make one Copper of the firstwort, without putting any fresh Malt on the Goods; the next Liquor to beBlood-warm, the next sharp, and the next cool or cold; for the general wayin great Brewhouses is to let a cool Liquor precede a sharp one, becauseit gradually opens the Pores of the Malt and Goods, and prepares the wayfor the hotter Liquor that is to follow._The several Lengths or Quantities of Drinks that have been made fromMalt, and their several Prices, as they have been sold at a commonBrewhouse_.For Stout-Beer, is commonly drawn one Barrel off a quarter of Malt, andsold for thirty Shillings _per_ Barrel from the Tun. For Stitch or strongbrown Ale, one Barrel and a Firkin, at one and twenty Shillings andFourpence _per_ Barrel from the Tun. For common brown Ale, one Barrel anda half or more, at sixteen Shillings _per_ Barrel, that holds thirty twoGallons, from the Tun. For Intire small Beer, five or six Barrels off aQuarter, at seven or eight Shillings _per_ Barrel from the Tun. For Paleand Amber Ale, one Barrel and a Firkin, at one Shilling _per_ Gallon fromthe Tun.CHAP. IX._The Country or private way of Brewing_.Several Countries have their several Methods of Brewing, as is practisedin _Wales, Dorchester, Nottingham, Dundle_, and many other Places; butevading Particulars, I shall here recommend that which I think is mostserviceable both in Country and _London_ private Families. And first, Ishall observe that the great Brewer has some advantages in Brewing morethan the small one, and yet the latter has some Conveniences which theformer can't enjoy; for 'tis certain that the great Brewer can make moreDrink, and draw a greater Length in proportion to his Malt, than a Personcan from a lesser Quantity, because the greater the Body, the more is itsunited Power in receiving and discharging, and he can Brew with lesscharge and trouble by means of his more convenient Utensils. But then theprivate Brewer is not without his Benefits; for he can have his Maltground at pleasure, his Tubs and moveable Coolers sweeter and betterclean'd than the great fixed Tuns and Backs, he can skim off his top Yeastand leave his bottom Lees behind, which is what the great Brewer can't sowell do; he can at discretion make additions of cold wort to his tooforward Ales and Beers, which the great Brewer can't so conveniently do;he can Brew how and when he pleases, which the great ones are in somemeasure hindred from. But to come nearer the matter, I will suppose aprivate Family to Brew five Bushels of Malt, whose Copper holds brim-fullthirty six Gallons or a Barrel: On this water we put half a Peck of Branor Malt when it is something hot, which will much forward it by keep inthe Steams or Spirit of the water, and when it begins to Boil, if thewater is foul, skim off the Bran or Malt and give it the Hogs, or elselade both water and that into the mash Vat, where it is to remain till thesteam is near spent, and you can see your Face in it, which will be inabout a quarter of an Hour in cold weather; then let all but half a Bushelof the Malt run very leisurely into it, stirring it all the while with anOar or Paddle, that it may not Ball, and when the Malt is all but justmix'd with water it is enough, which I am sensible is different from theold way and the general present Practice; but I shall here clear thatPoint. For by not stirring or mashing the Malt into a Pudding Consistenceor thin Mash, the Body of it lies in a more loose Condition, that willeasier and sooner admit of a quicker and more true Passage of the after-ladings of the several Bowls or Jets of hot water, which must run thoroughit before the Brewing is ended; by which free percolation the water hasready access to all the parts of the broken Malt, so that the Brewer iscapacitated to Brew quicker or slower, and to make more Ale or small Beer;If more Ale, then hot Boiling water must be laded over to slow that oneBowl must run almost off before another is put over, which will occasionthe whole Brewing to last about sixteen Hours, especially if the _Dundle_way is followed, of spending it out of the Tap as small as a Straw, and asfine as Sack, and then it will be quickly so in the Barrel: Of if less orweaker Ale is to be made and good small Beer, then the second Copper ofboiling water may be put over expeditiously and drawn out with a large andfast steam. After the first stirring of the Malt is done, then put overthe reserve of half a Bushel of fresh Malt to the four Bushels and halfthat is already in the Tub, which must be spread all over it, and alsocover the top of the Tub with some Sacks or other Cloths to keep in theSteam or Spirit of the Malt; then let it stand two or three Hours, at theend of which, put over now and then a Bowl of the boiling water in theCopper as is before directed, and so continue to do till as much is runoff as will almost fill the Copper; then in a Canvas or other loose wovenCloth, put in half a Pound of Hops and boil them half an Hour, when theymust be taken out, and as many fresh ones put in their room as is judgedproper to boil half an Hour more, if for Ale: But if for keeping Beer,half a Pound of fresh ones should be put in at every half Hour's end, andBoil an Hour and a half briskly: Now while the first Copper of wort isBoiling, there should be scalding water leisurely put over the Goods, Bowlby Bowl, and run off, that the Copper may be filled again immediatelyafter the first is out, and boiled an Hour with near the same quantity offresh Hops, and in the same manner as those in the first Copper of Ale-wort were. The rest for small Beer may be all cold water put over theGrains at once, or at twice, and Boil'd an Hour each Copper with the Hopsthat has been boil'd before. But here I must observe, that sometimes Ihave not an opportunity to get hot water for making all my second Copperof wort, which obliges me then to make use of cold to supply what waswanting. Out of five Bushels of Malt, I generally make a Hogshead of Alewith the two first Coppers of wort, and a Hogshead of small Beer with theother two, but this more or less according to please me, always takingCare to let each Copper of wort be strained off thro' a Sieve, and cool infour or five Tubs to prevent its foxing. Thus I have brewed many Hogsheadsof midling Ale that when the Malt is good, has proved strong enough formyself and satisfactory to my friends: But for strong keeping Beer, thefirst Copper of wort may be wholly put to that use, and all the rest smallBeer: Or when the first Copper of wort is intirely made use of for strongBeer, the Goods may be help'd with more fresh Malt (according to the_London_ Fashion) and water lukewarm put over at first with the Bowl, butsoon after sharp or boiling water, which may make a Copper of good Ale,and small Beer after that. In some Parts of the North, they take one ormore Cinders red hot and throw some Salt on them to overcome the Sulphurof the Coal, and then directly thrust it into the fresh Malt or Goods,where it lies till all the water is laded over and the Brewing done, forthere is only one or two mashings or stirrings at most necessary in aBrewing: Others that Brew with Wood will quench one or more Brands ends ofAsh in a Copper of wort, to mellow the Drink as a burnt Toast of Breaddoes a Pot of Beer; but it is to be observed, that this must not be donewith Oak, Firr, or any other strong-scented Wood; lest it does more harmthan good._Another Way_.When small Beer is not wanted, and another Brewing is soon to succeed theformer, then may the last small Beer wort, that has had no Hops boiled init, remain in the Copper all Night, which will prevent its foxing, and beready to boil instead of so much water to put over the next fresh Malt:This will greatly contribute to the strengthening, bettering and colouringof the next wort, and is commonly used in this manner when Stout or_October_ Beer is to be made, not that it is less serviceable if it wasfor Ale, or Intire Guile small Beer; but lest it should taste of theCopper by remaining all Night in it, it may be dispersed into Tubs andkept a Week or more together if some fresh cold water is daily added toit, and may be brewed as I have mentioned, taking particular Care in thisas well as in the former ways to return two, three, or more Hand-bowls ofwort into the Mash Tub, that first of all runs off, till it comesabsolutely fine and clear, and then it may spend away or run off for good:Others will reserve this small Beer wort unboiled in Tubs, and keep itthere a Week in Winter, or two or three Days in Summer, according toConveniency, by putting fresh water every Day to it, and use it instead ofwater for the first Mash, alledging it is better so than boiled, becauseby that it is thickened and will cause the wort to run foul; this may be aBenefit to a Victualler that Brews to Sell again, and can't Vent his smallBeer; because for such small raw wort that is mix'd with any water, thereis no Excise to be pay'd._For Brewing Intire Guile Small Beer_.There can be no way better for making good small Beer, than by Brewing itfrom fresh Malt, because in Malt as well as in Hops, and so in all otherVegetables, there is a Spirituous and Earthy part, as I shall furtherenlarge on in writing of the Hop; therefore all Drink brewed from Goods orGrains after the first or second worts are run off, is not so good andwholsome, as that intirely brewed from fresh Malt, nor could any thing butNecessity cause me to make use of such Liquor; yet how many thousands arethere in this Nation that know nothing of the matter, tho' it is of nosmall Importance, and ought to be regarded by all those that value theirHealth and Taste. And here I advertise every one who reads or hears this,and is capable of being his own Friend, so far to mind this _Item_ andprefer that small Beer which is made entirely from fresh Malt, before anyother that is brewed after strong Beer or Ale. Now to brew such Guilesmall Beer after the boiling water has stood in the Tub till it is clear,put in the Malt leisurely, and mash it that it does not Ball or Clot, thenthrow over some fresh Malt on the Top, and Cloths over that, and let itstand two Hours before it is drawn off, the next water may be between hotand cold, the next boiling hot, and the next Cold; or if conveniencyallows not, there may be once scalding water, and all the rest coldinstead of the last three. Thus I brew my Intire Guile small Beer, byputting the first and last worts together, allowing half, or a Pound ofHops to a Hogshead and boiling it one Hour, but if the Hops were shiftedtwice in that time, the Drink would plainly discover the benefit.Sometimes, when I have been in haste for small Beer, I have put half aBushel of Malt and a few Hops into my Barrel-Copper, and boil'd a Kettlegallop as some call it an Hour, and made me a present Drink, till I hadmore leisure to brew better._A particular way of Brewing strong_ October _Beer_.There was a Man in this Country that brewed for a Gentleman constantlyafter a Very precise Method, and that was, as soon as he had put over allhis first Copper of water and mash'd it some time, he would directly letthe Cock run a small stream and presently put some fresh Malt on theformer, and mash on the while the Cock was spending, which he would putagain over the Malt, as often as his Pail or Hand-bowl was full, and thisfor an Hour or two together; then he would let it run off intirely, andput it over at once, to run off again as small as a Straw. This was forhis _October_ Beer: Then he would put scalding water over the Goods atonce, but not mash, and Cap them with more fresh Malt that stood an Hourundisturbed before he would draw it off for Ale; the rest was hot waterput over the Goods and mash'd at twice for small Beer: And it was observedthat his _October_ Beer was the most famous in the Country, but his Grainsgood for little, for that he had by this method wash'd out all or most oftheir goodness; this Man was a long while in Brewing, and once his Beerdid not work in the Barrel for a Month in a very hard Frost, yet when theweather broke it recovered and fermented well, and afterwards proved verygood Drink, but he seldom work'd, his Beer less than a Week in the Vat,and was never tapp'd under three Years.This way indeed is attended with extraordinary Labour and Time, by theBrewers running off the wort almost continually, and often returning thesame again into the mash Vat, but then it certainly gives him anopportunity of extracting and washing out the goodness of the Malt, morethan any of the common Methods, by which he is capacitated to make his_October_ or _March_ Beer as strong as he pleases. The Fame of _PenlyOctober_ Beer is at this time well known not only throughout_Hertfordshire_, but several other remote Places, and truly not withoutdesert, for in all my Travels I never met with any that excell'd it, for aclear amber Colour, a fine relish, and a light warm digestion. But whatexcell'd all was the generosity of its Donor, who for Hospitality in hisViands and this _October_ Beer, has left but few of his Fellows. Iremember his usual Expression to be, You are welcome to a good Batch of my_October_, and true it was, that he proved his Words by his Deeds, for notonly the rich but even the poor Man's Heart was generally made glad, evenin advance, whenever they had Business at _Penly_, as expecting arefreshment of this Cordial Malt Liquor, that often was accompany'd with agood Breakfast or Dinner besides, while several others that had greaterEstates would seem generous by giving a Yeoman Man Neighbour, theMathematical Treat of a look on the Spit, and a standing Drink at the Tap._Of Brewing Molosses Beer_.Molosses or Treacle has certainly been formerly made too much use of inthe brewing of Stout Beer, common Butt Beers, brown Ales and small Beerwhen Malts have been dear: But it is now prohibited under the Penalty offifty Pounds for every ten Pounds weight found in any common Brewhouse,and as Malts are now about twenty Shillings _per_ Quarter, and like to beso by the Blessing of God, and the Assistance of that invaluable excellentLiquor for steeping Seed Barley in, published in a late Book intituled,_Chiltern and Vale Farming Explained_: There is no great danger of that,Imposition being rife again, which in my Opinion was very unwholsome,because the Brewer was obliged to put such a large quantity of Treacleinto his water or small wort to make it strong Beer or Ale, as veryprobably raised a sweating in some degree in the Body of the drinker: Tho'in small Beer a lesser quantity will serve; and therefore I have knownsome to brew it in that for their Health's sake, because this does notbreed the Scurvy like Malt-liquors, and at the same time will keep openthe Pipes and Passages of the Lungs and Stomach, for which purpose theyput in nine Pounds weight into a Barrel-Copper of cold water, first mixingit well, and boiling it briskly with a quarter of a Pound of Hops or moreone Hour, so that it may come off twenty seven Gallons._A Method practiced by a Victualler for Brewing of Ale or_ October _Beerfrom_ Nottingham.His Copper holds twenty four Gallons, and the Mash Tub has room enough forfour and more Bushels of Malt. The first full Copper of boiling water heputs into the Mash Tub, there to lye a quarter of an Hour, till the steamis so far spent, that he can see his Face in it, or as soon as the hotwater is put in, throws a Pail or two of cold water into it, which willbring it at once into a temper; then he lets three Bushels of Malt be runleisurely into it, and stirred or mash'd all the while, but as little ascan be, or no more than just to keep the Malt from clotting or balling;when that is done, he puts one Bushel of dry Malt on the Top to keep inthe Vapour or Spirit, and so lets it stand covered two Hours, or till thenext Copper full of water is boiled hot, which he lades over the Malt orGoods three Hand-bowls full at a time, that are to run off at the Cock orTap by a very small stream before more is put on, which again must bereturned into the Mash Tub till it comes off exceeding fine, for unlessthe wort is clear when it goes into the Copper, there are little hopes itwill be so in the Barrel, which leisure way obliges him to be sixteenHours in brewing these four Bushels of Malt. Now between the ladings overhe puts cold water into the Copper to be boiling hot, while the other isrunning off; by this means his Copper is kept up near full, and the Cockspending to the end of brewing his Ale or small Beer, of which only twentyone Gallons must be saved of the first wort that is reserved in a Tub,wherein four Ounces of Hops are put and then it is to be set by. For thesecond wort I will suppose there are twenty Gallons of water in the Copperboiling hot, that must be all laded over in the same manner as the formerwas, but no cold water need here be mixed; when half of this is run outinto a Tub, it must be directly put into the Copper with half of the firstwort, strain'd thro' the Brewing Sieve as it lies on a small loose woodenFrame over the Copper, to keep back those Hops that were first put in topreserve it, which is to make the first Copper twenty one Gallons; thenupon its beginning to boil he puts in a Pound of Hops in one or two Canvasor other coarse Linnen Bags, somewhat larger than will just contain theHops, that an allowance may be given for their swell; this he boils awayvery briskly for half an Hour, when he takes the Hops out and continuesboiling the wort by itself till it breaks into Particles a little ragged,and then it is enough and must be dispers'd into the cooling Tubs verythin: Then put the remainder of the first and second wort together andboil that, the same time, in the same manner, and with the same quantityof fresh Hops the first was. The rest of the third or small Beer wort willbe about fifteen or twenty Gallons more or less, he mixes directly withsome cold water to keep it free of Excise, and puts it into the Copper asthe first Liquor to begin a second Brewing of Ale with another fourBushels of Malt as he did before, and so on for several Days together ifnecessary; but at last there may be some small Beer made, tho' some willmake make none, because the Goods or Grains will go the further in feedingof Hogs._Observations on the foregoing Method_.The first Copper of twenty four Gallons of water is but sufficient to wetthree Bushels of Malt, and by the additions of cold water as the hot isexpended, it matters not how much the Malt drinks up: Tho' a third part ofwater is generally allowed for that purpose that is never returned.By the leisure putting over the Bowls of water, the goodness of the Maltis the more extracted and washed out, so that more Ale may be this waymade and less small Beer, than if the wort was drawed out hastily; besidesthe wort has a greater opportunity of coming off finer by a slow streamthan by a quicker one, which makes this Method excel all others thatdischarge the wort out of the Mash Tub more hastily. Also by the continualrunning of the Cock or Tap, the Goods or Grains are out of danger ofsowring, which often happens in Summer Brewings, especially when the Cookis stopt between the several boilings of the wort, and what has been thevery Cause of damaging or spoiling many Guiles of Drink.This Brewer reposes such a Confidence in the Hops to preserve the wortfrom fixing even in the very hottest time in Summer, that he puts all hisfirst running into one Tub, till he has an opportunity of boiling it, andwhen Tubs and Room are so scarce that the wort is obliged to be laid thickto cool, then the security of some fresh Hops (and not them already boiledor soak'd) may be put into it, which may be got out again by letting theDrink run thro' the Cullender, and after that a Hair Sieve to keep theSeeds of the Hop back as the Drink goes into the Barrel: But this way ofputting Hops into the cooling Tubs is only meant where there is a perfectNecessity, and Tubs and Room enough can't be had to lay the wort thin.By this Method of Brewing, Ale may be made as strong or as small as isthought fit, and so may the small Beer that comes after, and is soagreeable that this Brewer makes his Ale and strong keeping _October_Beer, all one and the same way, only with this Difference, that the latteris stronger and more hopp'd than the former. Where little or no small Beeris wanted, there may little or none be Brewed, according to this manner ofWorking, which is no small Conveniency to a little Family that uses morestrong than small, nor is there any Loss by leaving the Grainy in someHeart, where Horse, Cows, Hogs, or Rabbits are kept.I am very sensible that the Vulgar Error for many Years, has been astandard Sign to the ignorant of boiling strong Worts only till they breakor curdle in the Copper, which sometimes will be in three quarters of anHour, or in an Hour or more, according to the nature of the Malt andWater; but from these in some measure I dissent, and also from those thatboil it two or three Hours, for it is certain the longer worts boil, thethicker they are made, because the watry or thin parts evaporate firstaway, and the thicker any Drink is boiled, the longer it requires to lyein the Barrel to have its Particles broke, which Age must be then the solecause of, and therefore I have fixed the time and sign to know when thewort is truly enough, and that in such, a manner that an ordinary Capacitymay be a true judge of, which hereafter will prevent prodigious Losses inthe waste of strong worts that have often been boiled away to greater Lossthan Profit.I have here also made known, I think, the true Method of managing the Hopin the Copper, which has long wanted adjusting, to prevent the greatdamage that longer boilings of them has been the sole occasion of to thespoiling of most of our malt Drinks brewed in this Nation.CHAP. X._The Nature and Use of the Hop_.This Vegetable has suffered its degradation, and raised its Reputation onthe most of any other. It formerly being thought an unwholsome Ingredient,and till of late a great breeder of the Stone in the Bladder, but now thatfalacious Notion is obviated by Dr_.Quincy_ and others, who have provedthat Malt Drink much tinctured by the Hop, is less prone to do thatmischief, than Ale that has fewer boiled in it. Indeed when the Hop in adear time is adulterated with water, in which Aloes, etc. have beeninfused, as was practised it is said about eight Years ago to make the oldones recover their bitterness and seem new, then they are to be looked onas unwholsome; but the pure new Hop is surely of a healthful Nature,composed of a spirituous flowery part, and a phlegmatick terrene part, andwith the best of the Hops I can either make or mar the Brewing, for if theHops are boiled in strong or small worts beyond their fine and pureNature, the Liquor suffers, and will be tang'd with a noxious taste bothungrateful and unwholsome to the Stomach, and if boiled to a very greatExcess, they will be apt to cause Reachings and disturb a weakConstitution. It is for these Reasons that I advise the boiling twoParcels of fresh Hops in each Copper of Ale-wort, and if there were threefor keeping Beer, it would be so much the better for the taste, health ofBody and longer Preservation of the Beer in a sound smooth Condition. Andaccording to this, one of my Neighbours made a Bag like a Pillow-bear ofthe ordinary sixpenny yard Cloth, and boil'd his Hops in it half an Hour,then he took them out, and put in another Bag of the like quantity offresh Hops and boiled them half an Hour more, by which means he had anopportunity of boiling both Wort and Hops their due time, sav'd himselfthe trouble of draining them thro' a Sieve, and secured the Seeds of theHops at the same time from mixing with the Drink, afterwards he boiled thesame Bags in his small Beer till he got the goodness of it out, butobserve that the Bags were made bigger than what would just contain theHops, otherwise it will be difficult to boil out their goodness. It'strue, that here is a Charge encreased by the Consumption of a greaterquantity of Hops than usual, but then how greatly will they answer thedesired end of enjoying fine palated wholsome Drink, that in a cheap timewill not amount to much if bought at the best Hand; and if we considertheir after-use and benefit in small Beer, there is not any loss at all intheir Quantity: But where it can be afforded, the very small Beer would bemuch improved if fresh Hops were also shifted in the boiling of this aswell as the stronger worts, and then it would be neighbourly Charity togive them away to the poorer Person. Hence may appear the Hardship thatmany are under of being necessitated to drink of those Brewers MaltLiquors, who out of avarice boil their Hops to the last, that they may notlose any of their quintessence: Nay, I have known some of the littleVictualling Brewers so stupendiously ignorant, that they have thought theyacted the good Husband, when they have squeezed the Hops after they havebeen boiled to the last in small Beer, to get out all their goodness asthey vainly imagin'd, which is so reverse to good management, that in myOpinion they had much better put some sort of Earth into the Drink, and itwould prove more pleasant and wholsome. And why the small Beer should bein this manner (as I may justly call it) spoiled for want of the triflingCharge of a few fresh Hops, I am a little surprized at, since is the mostgeneral Liquor of Families and therefore as great Care is due to as any inits Brewing, to enjoy it in pure and wholsome Order.After the Wort is cooled and put into the working Vat or Tub, some havethrown fresh Hops into it, and worked them with the Yeast, at the sametime reserving a few Gallons of raw Wort to wash the Yeast thro' a Sieveto keep back the Hop. This is a good way when Hops enough have not beensufficiently boiled in the Wort, or to preserve it in the Coolers where itis laid thick, otherwise I think it needless.When Hops have been dear, many have used the Seeds of Wormwood, the theybuy in the London Seed Shops instead of them: Others _Daucus_ or wildCarrot Seed, that grows in our common Fields, which many of the poorPeople in this Country gather and dry in their Houses against theirwanting of them: Others that wholsome Herb _Horehound_, which indeed is afine Bitter and grows on several of our Commons.But before I conclude this Article, I shall take notice of a Country Bite,as I have already done of a _London_ one, and that is, of an Arch Fellowthat went about to Brew for People, and took his opportunity to save allthe used Hops that were to be thrown away, these he washed clean, thenwould dry them in the Sun, or by the Fire, and sprinkle the juice of_Horehound_ on them, which would give them such a greenish colour andbitterish taste, that with the help of the Screw-press he would sell themfor new Hops.Hops in themselves are known to be a subtil grateful Bitter, whoseParticles are Active and Rigid, by which the viscid ramous parts of theMalt are much divided, that makes the Drink easy of Digestion in the Body;they also keep it from running into such Cohesions as would make it ropy,valid and sour, and therefore are not only of great use in boiled, butin raw worts to preserve them sound till they can be put into the Copper,and afterwards in the Tun while the Drink is working, as I have beforehinted.Here then I must observe, that the worser earthy part of the Hop isgreatly the cause of that rough, harsh unpleasant taste, which accompanyboth Ales and Beers that have the Hops so long boiled in them as totincture their worts with their, mischievous Effects; for notwithstandingthe Malt, be ever so good, the Hops, if boiled too long in them, will beso predominant as to cause a nasty bad taste, and therefore I am in hopesour Malt Liquors in general will be in great Perfection, when Hops aremade use of according to my Directions, and also that more Grounds will beplanted with this most serviceable Vegetable than ever, that theirDearness may not be a disencouragement to this excellent Practice.For I know an Alehouse-keeper and Brewer, who, to save the expence of Hopsthat were then two Shillings _per_ Pound, use but a quartern instead of aPound, the rest he supplied with _Daucus_ Seeds; but to be moreparticular, in a Mug of this Person's Ale I discovered three severalImpositions. _First_, He underboil'd his Wort to save its Consumption:_Secondly_, He boiled this Seed instead of the Hop; and _Thirdly_, He beatthe Yeast in for some time to encrease the strength of the Drink; and allthese in such a _Legerdemain_ manner as gull'd and infatuated the ignorantDrinker to such a degree as not to suspect the Fraud, and that for thesethree Reasons: _First_, The underboil'd wort being of a more sweet tastethan ordinary, was esteemed the Produce of a great allowance of Malt._Secondly_, The _Daucus_ Seed encreased their approbation by the finePeach flavour or relish that it gives the Drink; and _Thirdly_, The Yeastwas not so much as thought of, since they enjoyed a strong heady Liquor.These artificial Qualities, and I think I may say unnatural, has been soprevalent with the Vulgar, who were his chief Customers, that I have knownthis Victualler have more Trade for such Drink than his Neighours, who hadmuch more wholsome at the same time; for the _Daucus_ Seed tho' it is aCarminative, and has some other good Properties, yet in the unboil'd Wortit is not capable of doing the Office of the Hop, in breaking thro' theclammy parts of it; the Hop being full of subtil penetrating Qualities, aStrengthener of the Stomach, and makes the Drink agreeble, by opposingObstructions of the _Viscera_, and particularly of the Liver and Kidneys,as the Learned maintain, which confutes the old Notion, that Hops are aBreeder of the Stone in the Bladder.CHAP. XI._Of Boiling Malt Liquors_.Altho' I have said an Hour and a half is requisite for boiling _October_Beer, and an Hour for Ales and small Beer; yet it is to be observed, thatan exact time is not altogether a certain Rule in this Case with someBrewers; for when loose Hops are boiled in the wort so long till they allsink, their Seeds will arise and fall down again; the wort also will becurdled, and broke into small Particles if examin'd in a Hand-bowl, butafterwards into larger, as big as great Pins heads, and will appear cleanand fine at the Top. This is so much a Rule with some, that they regardnot Time but this Sign to shew when the Wort is boiled enough; and thiswill happen sooner or later according to the Nature of the Barley and itsbeing well Malted; for if it comes off Chalks or Gravels, it generally hasthe good Property of breaking or curdling soon; but if of tough Clays,then it is longer, which by some Persons is not a little valued, becauseit saves time in boiling, and consequently the Consumption of the Wort.It is also to be observed, that pale Malt Worts will not break so soon inthe Copper, as the brown Sorts, but when either of their Worts boil, itshould be to the purpose, for then they will break sooner and waste lessthan if they are kept Simmering, and will likewise work more kindly in theTun, drink smoother, and keep longer.Now all Malt Worts may be spoiled by too little or too much boiling; iftoo little, then the Drink will always taste raw, mawkish, and beunwholsome in the Stomach, where, instead of helping to dilute and digestour Food, it will cause Obstructions, Colicks, Head-achs, and othermisfortunes; besides, all such underboil'd Drinks are certainly exposed tostaleness and sowerness, much sooner than those that have had their fulltime in the Copper. And if they are boiled too long, they will thenthicken (for one may boil a Wort to a Salve) and not come out of theCopper fine and in a right Condition, which will cause it never to beright clear in the Barrel; an _Item_ sufficient to shew the mistake of allthose that think to excel in Malt Liquors, by boiling them two or threeHours, to the great Confusion of the Wort, and doing more harm than goodto the Drink.But to be more particular in those two Extreams, it is my Opinion, as Ihave said before, that no Ale Worts boiled less than an Hour can be good,because in an Hour's time they cannot acquire a thickness of Body any waysdetrimental to them, and in less than an Hour the ramous viscid parts ofthe Ale cannot be sufficiently broke and divided, so as to prevent itrunning into Cohesions, Ropyness and Sowerness, because in Ales there arenot Hops enough allowed to do this, which good boiling must in a greatmeasure supply, or else such Drink I am sure can never be agreeable to theBody of Man; for then its cohesive Parts being not thoroughly broke andcomminuted by time and boiling, remains in a hard texture of Parts, whichconsequently obliges the Stomach to work more than ordinary to digest andsecrete such parboiled Liquor, that time and fire should have curedbefore: Is not this apparent in half boil'd Meats, or under-bak'd Bread,that often causes the Stomach a great fatigue to digest, especially inthose of a sedentary Life; and if that suffers, 'tis certain the wholeBody must share in it: How ignorant then are those People, who, in tiplingof such Liquor, can praise it for excellent good Ale, as I have been aneye-witness of, and only because its taste is sweetish, (which is thenature of such raw Drinks) as believing it to be the pure Effects of thegenuine Malt, not perceiving the Landlord's Avarice and Cunning to savethe Consumption of his Wort by shortness of boiling, tho' to the greatPrejudice of the Drinker's Health; and because a Liquid does not affordsuch a plain ocular Demonstration, as Meat and Bread does, these deludedPeople are taken into an Approbation of indeed an _Ignis fatuus_, or whatis not.To come then to the _Crisis_ of the Matter, both Time and the Curdling orBreaking of the Wort should be consulted; for if a Person was to boil theWort an Hour, and then take it out of the Copper, before it was rightlybroke, it would be wrong management, and the Drink would not be fine norwholsome; and if it should boil an Hour and a half, or two Hours, withoutregarding when its Particles are in a right order, then it may be toothick, so that due Care must be had to the two extreams to obtain it itsdue order; therefore in _October_ and keeping Beers, an Hour and aquarter's good boiling is commonly sufficient to have a thorough curedDrink, for generally in that time it will break and boil enough, andbecause in this there is a double Security by length of boiling, and aquantity of Hops shifted; but in the new way there is only a single one,and that is by a double or treble allowance of fresh Hops boiled only halfan Hour in the Wort, and for this Practice a Reason is assigned, that theHops being endowed with discutient apertive Qualities, will by them andtheir great quantity supply the Defect of underboiling the Wort; and thata further Conveniency is here enjoyed by having only the fine wholsomestrong flowery spirituous Parts of the Hop in the Drink, exclusive of thephlegmatick nasty earthy Parts which would be extracted if the Hops wereto be boiled above half an Hour; and therefore there are many now, thatare so attach'd to this new Method, that they won't brew Ale or _October_Beer any other way, vouching it to be a true Tenet, that if Hops areboiled above thirty Minutes, the wort will have some or more of theirworser Quality. The allowance of Hops for Ale or Beer, cannot be exactlyadjusted without coming to Particulars, because the Proportion should beaccording to the nature and quality of the Malt, the Season of the Year itis brew'd in, and the length of time it is to be kept.For strong brown Ale brew'd in any of the Winter Months, and boiled anHour, one Pound is but barely sufficient for a Hogshead, if it be Tapp'din three Weeks or a Month.If for pale Ale brewed at that time and for that Age, one Pound and aquarter of Hops; but if these Ales are brewed in any of the Summer Months,there should be more Hops allowed.For _October_ or _March_ brown Beer, a Hogshead made from Eleven Bushelsof Malt, boiled an Hour and a quarter to be kept Nine Months, three Poundsand a half ought to be boiled in such Drink at the least.For _October_ or _March_, pale Beer made from fourteen Bushels, boiled anHour and a quarter, and kept Twelve Months, six Pound ought to be allowedto a Hogshead of such Drink, and more if the Hops are shifted in two Bags,and less time given the Wort to boil.Now those that are of Opinion, that their Beer and Ales are greatlyimproved by boiling the Hops only half an Hour in the Wort, I joyn inSentiment with them, as being very sure by repeated Experience it is so;but I must here take leave to dissent from those that think that half anHour's boiling the Wort is full enough for making right sound and wellrelished Malt Drinks; however of this I have amply and more particularlywrote in my Second Book of Brewing in Chapter IV, where I have plainlypublish'd the true Sign or Criterion to know when the Wort is boiled justenough, and which I intend to publish in a little time.CHAP. XII._Of Foxing or Tainting Malt Liquors_.Foxing is a misfortune, or rather a Disease in Malt Drinks, occasioned bydivers Means, as the Nastiness of the Utensils, putting the Worts toothick together in the Backs or Cooler, Brewing too often and soon oneafter another, and sometimes by bad Malts and Waters, and the Liquorstaken in wrong Heats, being of such pernicious Consequence to the greatBrewer in particular, that he sometimes cannot recover and bring hisMatters into a right Order again under a Week or two, and is so hateful tohim in its very Name, that it is a general Law among them to make allServants that Name the word _Fox_ or _Foxing_, in the Brewhouse to paySixpence, which obliges them to call it _Reynards_; for when once theDrink is Tainted, it may be smelt at some Distance somewhat like a _Fox_;It chiefly happens in hot weather, and causes the Beer and Ale so Taintedto acquire a fulsome sickish taste, that will if it is receive'd in agreat degree become Ropy like Treacle, and in some short time turn Sour.This I have known so to surprize my small Beer Customers, that they haveasked the Drayman what was the matter: He to act in his Master's Interesttells them a Lye, and says it is the goodness of the Malt that causes thatsweetish mawkish taste, and then would brag at Home how cleverly he cameoff. I have had it also in the Country more than once, and that by theidleness and ignorance of my Servant, who when a Tub has been rinced outonly with fair Water, has set it by for a clean one but this won't do witha careful Master for I oblige him to clean the Tub with a Hand-brush,Ashes, or Sand every Brewing, and so that I cannot scrape any Dirt upunder my Nail. However as the Cure of this Disease has baffled the Effortsof many, I have been tempted to endeavour the finding out a Remedy for thegreat Malignity, and shall deliver the best I know on this Score.And here I shall mention the great Value of the Hop in preventing andcuring the Fox in Malt Liquors. When the Wort is run into the Tub out ofthe mashing Vat, it is a very good way to throw some Hops directly into itbefore it is put into the Copper, and they will secure it against Sournessand Ropyness, that are the two Effects of fox'd Worts or Drinks, and is ofsuch Power in this respect, that raw Worts may be kept some time, even, inhot weather, before they are boiled, and which is necessary; where thereis a large Quantity of Malt used to a little Copper; but it is certainthat the stronger Worts will keep longer with Hops than the smaller Sorts:So likewise if a Person has fewer Tubs than is wanting, and he isapprehensive his Worts will be Fox'd by too thick lying in the Coolers orworking Tubs, then it will be a safe way to put some fresh Hops into suchTubs and work them with the Yeast as I have before hinted; or in case theDrink is already Foxed in the Fat or Tun, new Hops should be put in andwork'd with it, and they will greatly fetch it again into a right Order;but then such Drink should be carefully taken clear off from its grossnasty Lee, which being mostly Tainted, would otherwise lye in the Barrel,corrupt and make it worse.Some will sift quick Lime into foxed Drinks while they are working in theTun or Vat, that its Fire and Salts may break the Cohesions of the Beer orAle, and burn away the stench, that the Corruption would always cause; butthen such Drink should by a Peg at the bottom of the Vat be drawn off asfine as possible, and the Dregs left behind.There are many that do not conceive how their Drinks become Fox'd andTainted for several Brewings together; but I have in Chapter VI, in mySecond Book, made it appear, that the Taint is chiefly retain'd and lodgedin the upright wooden Pins that fasten the Planks to the Joists, and howscalding Lye is a very efficacious Liquor to extirpate it out of theUtensils in a little time if rightly applied; and one other most powerfulIngredient that is now used by the greatest Artists for curing of thesame.CHAP. XIII_Of fermenting and working of Beers and Ales, and the pernicious Practiceof Beating in the Yeast detected_.This Subject in my Opinion has, long wanted a Satyrical Pen to shew theill Effects of this unwholsome Method, which I suppose has been muchdiscouraged and hindered hitherto, from the general use it has been undermany Years, especially by the _Northern_ Brewers, who tho' much famed fortheir Knowledge in this Art, and have induced many others by their Examplein the _Southern_ and other Parts to pursue their Method; yet I shallendeavour to prove them culpable of Male-practice, that beat in the Yeast,as some of them have done a Week together; and that Custom ought not toAuthorize an ill Practice. _First_, I shall observe that Yeast is a verystrong acid, that abounds with subtil spirituous Qualities, whoseParticles being wrapped up in those that are viscid, are by a mixture withthem in the Wort, brought into an intestine Motion, occasion'd byParticles of different Gravities; for as the spirituous Parts of the Wortwill be continually striving to get up to the Surface, the glutinousadhesive ones of the Yeast will be as constant in retarding their assent,and so prevent their Escape; by which the spirituous Particles are setloose and free from their viscid Confinements, as may appear by the Frothon the Top, and to this end a moderate warmth hastens the Operation, as itassists in opening the viscidities in which some spirituous Parts may beentangled, and unbends the Spring of the included Air: The viscid Partswhich are raised to the Top, not only on account of their own lightness,but by the continual efforts and occursions of the Spirits to getuppermost, shew when the ferment is at the highest, and prevent the finerSpirits making their escape; but if this intestine Operation is permittedto continue too long, a great deal will get away, and the remaining growflat and vapid, as Dr. _Quincy_ well observes. Now tho' a small quantityof Yeast is necessary to break the Band of Corruption in the Wort, yet itis in itself of a poisonous Nature, as many other Acids are; for if aPlaister of thick Yeast be applied to the Wrist as some have done for anAgue, it will there raise little Pustules or Blisters in some degree likethat Venomous! (As I have just reason in a particular Sense to call it)Ingredient _Cantharide_, which is one of the Shop Poisons. Here then Ishall observe, that I have known several beat the Yeast into the Wort fora Week or more together to improve it, or in plainer terms to load theWort with its weighty and strong spirituous Particles; and that for twoReasons, _First_, Because it will make the Liquor so heady, that fiveBushels of Malt may be equal in strength to six, and that by thestupifying Narcotick Qualities of the Yeast; which mercenary subtilty andimposition has so prevailed to my Knowledge with the Vulgar and Ignorant,that it has caused many of them to return the next Day to the sameAlehouse, as believing they had stronger and better Drink than others: Butalas, how are such deceived that know no other than that it is the pureProduct of the Malt, when at the same time they are driving Nails intotheir Coffins, by impregnating their Blood with the corrupt Qualities ofthis poisonous acid, as many of its Drinkers have proved, by sufferingviolent Head-achs, loss of Appetite, and other Inconveniencies the Dayfollowing, and sometimes longer, after a Debauch of such Liquor; who wouldnot perhaps for a great reward swallow a Spoonful of thick Yeast byitself, and yet without any concern may receive for ought they knowseveral, dissolved in the Vehicle of Ale, and then the corrosiveCorpuscles of the Yeast being mix'd with the Ale, cannot fail (whenforsaken in the Canals of the Body of their Vehicle) to do the samemischief as they would if taken by themselves undiluted, only with thisdifference, that they may in this Form be carried sometimes further in theanimal Frame, and so discover their malignity in some of the inmostrecesses thereof, which also is the very Case of malignant Waters, as amost learned Doctor observes._Secondly_, They alledge for beating the Yeast into Wort, that it gives ita fine tang or relish, or as they call it at _London_, it makes the Alebite of the Yeast; but this flourish indeed is for no other reason than tofurther its Sale, and tho' it may be agreeable to some Bigots, to me itproves a discovery of the infection by its nauseous taste; however mysurprize is lessen'd, when I remember the _Plymouth_ People, who are quitethe reverse of them at _Dover_ and _Chatham_; for the first are soattach'd to their white thick Ale, that many have undone themselves bydrinking it; nor is their humour much different as to the common Brewersbrown Ale, who when the Customer wants a Hogshead, they immediately put ina Handful of Salt and another of Flower, and so bring it up, this is nosooner on the Stilling but often Tapp'd, that it may carry a Froth on theTop of the Pot, otherwise they despise it: The Salt commonly answered itsEnd of causing the Tiplers to become dryer by the great Quantities theydrank, that it farther excited by the biting pleasant stimulating qualitythe Salt strikes the Palate with. The Flower also had its seducing shareby pleasing the Eye and Mouth with its mantling Froth, so that the Sailorsthat are often here in great Numbers used to consume many Hogsheads ofthis common Ale with much delight, as thinking it was intirely the pureProduct of the Malt.Their white Ale is a clear Wort made from pale Malt, and fermented withwhat they call ripening, which is a Composition, they say, of the Flowerof Malt, Yeast and Whites of Eggs, a _Nostrum_ made and sold only by twoor three in those Parts, but the Wort is brewed and the Ale vended by manyof the Publicans; which is drank while it is fermenting in Earthen Steens,in such a thick manner as resembles butter'd Ale, and sold for TwopenceHalfpenny the full Quart. It is often prescribed by Physicians to be drankby wet Nurses for the encrease of their Milk, and also as a prevalentMedicine for the Colick and Gravel. But the _Dover_ and _Chatham_ Peoplewon't drink their Butt-Beer, unless it is Aged, fine and strong._Of working and fermenting_ London _Stout Beer and Ale_.In my Brewhouse at _London_, the Yeast at once was put into the Tun towork the Stout Beer and Ale with, as not having the Conveniency of doingotherwise, by reason the After-worts of small Beer comes into the sameBacks or Coolers where the strong Worts had just been, by this means, andthe shortness of time we have to ferment our strong Drinks, we cannot makeReserves of cold Worts to mix with and check the too forward working ofthose Liquors, for there we brewed three times a Week throughout the Year,as most of the great ones do in _London_, and some others five times. Thestrong Beer brewed for keeping is suffered to be Blood-warm in the Winterwhen the Yeast is put into it, that it may gradually work two Nights and aDay at least, for this won't admit of such a hasty Operation as the commonbrown Ale will, because if it is work'd too warm and hasty, such Beerwon't keep near so long as that fermented cooler. The brown Ale has indeedits Yeast put into it in the Evening very warm, because they carry it awaythe very next Morning early to their Customers, who commonly draw it outin less than a Week's time. The Pale or Amber Ales are often kept near it,not quite a Week under a fermentation, for the better incorporating theYeast with Wort, by beating it in several times for the foregoing Reasons._Of working or fermenting Drinks brewed by Private Families_.I mean such who Brew only for their own use, whether it be a privateFamily or a Victualler. In this Case be it for Stout Beers, or for any ofthe Ales; the way that is used in _Northamptonshire_, and by good Brewerselsewhere; is, to put some Yeast into a small quantity of warm Wort in aHand-bowl, which for a little while swims on the Top, where it works outand leisurely mixes with the Wort, that is first quite cold in Summer, andalmost so in Winter; for the cooler it is work'd the longer it will keep,too much Heat agitating the spirituous Particles into too quick a motion,whereby they spend themselves too fast, or fly away too soon, and then theDrink will certainly work into a blister'd Head that is never natural; butwhen it ferments by moderate degrees into a fine white curl'd Head, itsOperation is then truly genuine, and plainly shews the right management ofthe Brewer. To one Hogshead of Beer, that is to be kept nine Months, I puta Quart of thick Yeast, and ferment it as cool as it will admit of, twoDays together, in _October_ or _March_, and if I find it works too fast, Icheck it at leisure by stirring in some raw Wort with a Hand-bowl: Solikewise in our Country Ales we take the very same method, because ofhaving them keep some time, and this is so nicely observed by several,that I have seen them do the very same by their small Beer Wort; now bythese several Additions of raw Wort, there are as often new Commotionsraised in the Beer or Ale, which cannot but contribute to the rarefactionand comminution of the whole; but whether it is by these joiningPrinciples of the Wort and Yeast, that the Drink is rendered smoother, orthat the spirituous Parts are more entangled and kept from making theirEscape, I can't determine; yet sure it is, that such small Liquorsgenerally sparkle and knit out of the Barrel as others out of a Bottle,and is as pleasant Ale as ever I drank.Others again for Butt or Stout Beer will, when they find it works uptowards a thick Yeast, mix it once and beat it in again with theHand-bowl or Jett; and when it has work'd up a second time in such amanner, they put it into the Vessel with the Yeast on the Top and theSediments at Bottom, taking particular Care to have some more in a Tubnear the Cask to fill it up as it works over, and when it has doneworking, leave it with a thick Head of Yeast on to preserve it.But for Ale that is not to be kept very long, they Hop it accordingly, andbeat the Yeast in every four or five Hours for two Days successively inthe warm weather, and four in the Winter till the Yeast begins to workheavy and sticks to the hollow part of the Bowl, if turned down on thesame, then they take all the Yeast off at Top and leave all the Dregsbehind, putting only up the clear Drink, and when it is a little work'd inthe Barrel, it will be fine in a few Days and ready for drinking. Butthis, last way of beating in the Yeast too long, I think I havesufficiently detected, and hope, as it is how declining, it will neverrevive again, and for which reason I have in my second Book encouraged alllight fermentations, as the most natural for the Malt Liquor and the humanBody._Of forwarding and retarding the fermentation of malt Liquors_.In case Beer or Ale is backward in working, it is often practised to castsome Flower out of the Dusting Box, or with the Hand over the Top of theDrink, which will become a sort of Crust or Cover to help to keep the Coldout: Others will put in one or two Ounces of powder'd Ginger, which willso heat the Wort as to bring it forward: Others will take a Gallon StoneBottle and fill it with boiling water, which being well Cork'd, is putinto the working Tub, where it will communicate a gradual Heat for sometime and forward the fermentation: Others will reserve some raw Wort,which they heat and mix with the rest, but then due Care must be takenthat the Pot in which it is heated has no manner of Grease about it lestit impedes, instead of promoting the working, and for this reason somenice Brewers will not suffer a Candle too near the Wort, lest it drop intoit. But for retarding and keeping back any Drink that is too much heatedin working, the cold raw Wort, as I have said before, is the most properof any thing to check it with, tho' I have known some to put one or morePewter Dishes into it for that purpose, or it may be broke into severalother Tubs, where by its shallow lying it will be taken off its Fury.Others again, to make Drink work that is backward, will take the whites oftwo Eggs and beat them up with half a Quartern of good Brandy, and put iteither into the working Vat, or into the Cask, and it will quickly bringit forward if a warm Cloth is put over the Bung. Others will tye up Branin a coarse thin Cloth and put it into the Vat, where by its spungy andflowery Nature and close Bulk it will absorp a quantity of the Drink, andbreed a heat to forward its working. I know an Inn-keeper of a great Townin _Bucks_ that is so curious as to take off all the top Yeast first, andthen by a Peg near the bottom of his working Tub, he draws off the Beer orAle, so that the Dreggs are by this means left behind. This I must own isvery right in Ales that are to be drank soon, but in Beers that are to lyenine or twelve Months in a Butt or other Cask, there certainly will bewanted some Feces or Sediment for the Beer to feed on, else it mustconsequently grow hungry, sharp and eager; and therefore if its own topand bottom are not put into a Cask with the Beer, some other ArtificialComposition or Lee should supply its Place, that is wholsomer, and willbetter feed with such Drink than its own natural Settlement, and thereforeI have here inserted several curious Receipts for answering this greatEnd.CHAP. XIV. _Of an Artificial Lee for Stout or Stale Beer to feed on_.This Article, as it is of very great Importance in the curing of our maltLiquors, requires a particular regard to this last management of them,because in my Opinion the general misfortune of the Butt or keeping Beersdrinking so hard and harsh, is partly owing to the nasty foul Feces thatlye at the bottom of the Cask, compounded of the Sediments of Malt, Hopsand Yeast, that are, all Clogg'd with gross rigid Salts, which by theirlong lying in the Butt or other Vessel, so tinctures the Beer as to makeit partake of all their raw Natures: For such is the Feed, such is theBody, as may be perceived by Eels taken out of dirty Bottoms, that aresure to have a muddy taste, when the Silver sort that are catched inGravelly or Sandy clear Rivers Eat sweet and fine: Nor can this illproperty be a little in those Starting (as they call it in _London_) newthick Beers that were carry'd directly from my Brewhouse, and by a LeatherPipe or Spout conveyed into the Butt as they stood in the Cellar, which Ishall further demonstrate by the Example of whole Wheat, that is, by manyput into such Beer to feed and preserve it, as being reckoned asubstantial Alcali; however it has been proved that such Wheat in aboutthree Years time has eat into the very Wood of the Cask, and thereHony-comb'd it by making little hollow Cavities in the Staves. Othersthere are that will hang a Bag of Wheat in the Vessel that it mayn'ttouch the Bottom, but in both Cases the Wheat is discovered to absorp andcollect the saline acid qualities of the Beer, Yeast and Hop, by whichit is impregnated with their sharp qualities, as a Toast of Bread is putinto Punch or Beer, whose alcalous hollow Nature will attract and make aLodgment of the acid strong Particles in either, as is proved by eatingthe inebriating Toast, and therefore the _Frenchman_ says, the _English_are right in putting a Toast into the Liquor, but are Fools for eating it:Hence it is that such whole Wheat is loaded with the qualities of theunwholsome Settlements or Grounds of the Beer, and becomes of such acorroding Nature, as to do this mischief; and for that reason, some in the_North_ will hang a Bag of the Flower of malted Oats, Wheat, Pease andBeans in the Vessels of Beer, as being a lighter and mellower Body thanwhole Wheat or its Flower, and more natural to the Liquor: But whether itbe raw Wheat or Malted, it is supposed, after this receptacle has emittedits alcalous Properties to the Beer, and taken in all it can of the acidqualities thereof, that such Beer will by length of Age prey upon thatagain, and so communicate its pernicious Effects to the Body of Man, asExperience seems to justify by the many sad Examples that I have seen inthe Destruction of several lusty Brewers Servants, who formerly scorn'dwhat they then called Flux Ale, to the preference of such corrodingconsuming Stale Beers; and therefore I have hereafter advised that suchButt or keeping Beers be Tapp'd at nine or twelve Months end at furthest,and then an Artificial Lee will have a due time allowed it to do good andnot harm._An Excellent Composition for feeding Butts or keeping Beers with_.Take a Quart of _French_ Brandy, or as much of _English_, that is freefrom any burnt Tang, or other ill taste, and is full Proof, to this put asmuch Wheat or Flower as will knead it into a Dough, put it in long piecesinto the Bung Hole, as soon as the Beer has done working, or afterwards,and let it gently fall piece by piece to the bottom of the Butt, this willmaintain the Drink in a mellow freshness, keep staleness off for sometime, and cause it to be the stronger as it grows Aged.ANOTHER.Take one Pound of Treacle or Honey, one Pound of the Powder of dryedOyster-shells or fat Chalk, mix them well and put it into a Butt, as soonas it has done working or some time after, and Bung it well, this willboth fine and preserve the Beer in a soft, smooth Condition for a greatwhile.ANOTHER.Take a Peck of Egg-shells and dry them in an Oven, break and mix them withtwo Pound of fat Chalk, and mix them with water wherein four Pounds ofcoarse Sugar has been boiled, and put it into the Butt as aforesaid._To fine and preserve Beers and Ales by boiling an Ingredient in theWort_.This most valuable way I frequently follow both for Ale, Butt-beer andSmall Beer, and that is, in each Barrel Copper of Wort, I put in a Pottle,or two Quarts of whole Wheat as soon as I can, that it may soak before itboils, then I strain it thro' a Sieve, when I put the Wort in coolingTubs, and if it is thought fit the same Wheat may be boiled in a secondCopper: Thus there will be extracted a gluey Consistence, which beingincorporated with the Wort by boiling, gives it a more thick and ponderousBody, and when in the Cask, soon makes a Sediment or Lee, as the Wort ismore or less loaded with the weighty Particles of this fizy Body; but ifsuch Wheat was first parched or baked in an Oven, it would do better, asbeing rather too raw as it comes from the Ear._Another Way_.A Woman, who lived at _Leighton Buzzard_ in _Bedfordshire_, and had thebest Ale in the Town, once told a Gentleman, she had Drink just doneworking in the Barrel, and before it was Bung'd would wager it was fineenough to Drink out of a Glass, in which it should maintain a little whilea high Froth; and it was true, for the Ivory shavings that she boiled inher Wort, was the Cause of it, which an Acquaintance of mine accidentallyhad a View of as they lay spread over the Wort in the Copper; so willHartshorn shavings do the same and better, both of them being great finersand preservers of malt Liquors against staleness and sourness, and arecertainly of a very alcalous Nature. Or if they are put into a Cask whenyou Bung it down, it will be of service for that purpose; but these aredear in Comparison of the whole Wheat, which will in a great measuresupply their Place, and after it is used, may be given to a poor Body, orto the Hog._To stop the Fret in Malt Liquors_.Take a Quart of Black Cherry Brandy, and pour it in at the Bung-hole ofthe Hogshead and stop it close._To recover deadish Beer_.When strong Drink grows flat, by the loss of its Spirits, take four orfive Gallons out of a Hogshead, and boil it with five Pound of Honey, skimit, and when cold, put it to the rest, and stop it up close: This willmake it pleasant, quick and strong. _To make stale Beer drink new_.Take the Herb _Horehound_ stamp it and strain it, then put a Spoonful ofthe juice (which is an extream good Pectoral) to a pitcher-full of Beer,let it stand covered about two Hours and drink it. _To fine Malt Liquors_.Take a pint of water, half an Ounce of unslack'd Lime, mix them welltogether, let it stand three Hours and the Lime will settle to the Bottom,and the water be as clear as Glass, pour the water from the Sediment, andput it into your Ale or Beer, mix it with half an Ounce of Ising-glassfirst cut small and boiled, and in five Hours time or less the Beer in theBarrel will settle and clear.There are several other Compositions that may be used for this purpose,but none that I ever heard of will answer like those most Excellent Ballsthat Mr. _Ellis_ of _Little Gaddesden_ in _Hertfordshire_ has found out byhis own Experience to be very great Refiners, Preservers and Relishersof Malt Liquors and Cyders, and will also recover damag'd Drinks, as Ihave mentioned in my Second Book, where I have given a further Account ofsome other things that will fine, colour and improve Malt Drinks: TheBalls are sold at [missing text]CHAP. XV._Of several pernicious Ingredients put into Malt Liquors to encrease theirStrength_.Malt Liquors, as well as several others, have long lain under thedisreputation of being adulterated and greatly abused by avaricious andill-principled People, to augment their Profits at the Expence of theprecious Health of human Bodies, which, tho' the greatest Jewel in Life,is said to be too often lost by the Deceit of the Brewer, and theIntemperance of the Drinker: This undoubtedly was one, and I believe thegreatest, of the Lord _Bacon's_ Reasons for saying, he thought not one_Englishman_ in a thousand died a natural Death. Nor is it indeed to bemuch wondered at, when, according to Report, several of the Publicans makeit their Business to study and practise this Art, witness what I am afraidis too true, that some have made use of the _Coculus India_ Berry formaking Drink heady, and saving the Expence of Malt; but as this is aviolent Potion by its narcotick stupifying Quality, if taken in too largea degree, I hope this will be rather a prevention of its use than aninvitation, it being so much of the nature of the deadly Nightshade, thatit bears the same Character; and I am sure the latter is bad enough; forone of my Neighbour's Brothers was killed by eating its Berries that growin some of our Hedges, and so neatly resembles the black Cherry, that theBoy took the wrong for the right.There is another sinister Practice said to be frequently used by illPersons to supply the full quantity of Malt, and that is _Coriander_Seeds: This also is of a heady nature boiled in the Wort, one Pound ofwhich will answer to a Bushel of Malt, as was ingenuously confess'd to meby a Gardener, who own'd he sold a great deal of it to Alehouse Brewers(for I don't suppose the great Brewer would be concern'd in any suchAffair) for that purpose, purpose, at Ten-pence per Pound; but howwretchedly ignorant are those that make use of it, not knowing the wayfirst to cure and prepare it for this and other mixtures, without which itis a dangerous thing, and will cause Sickness in the Drinkers of it.Others are said to make use of Lime-stones to fine and preserve the Drink;but to come off the fairest in such foul Artifices, it has been too much ageneral Practice to beat the Yeast so long into the Ale, that withoutdoubt it has done great Prejudice to the Healths of many others besidesthe Person I have writ of in the Preface of my Second Book. For the sakethen of Seller and Buyer, I have here offered several valuable Receiptsfor fining, preserving and mellowing Beers and Ales, in such a truehealthful and beneficial manner, that from henceforth after the Perusal ofthis Book, and the knowledge of their worth are fully known, no Person, Ihope, will be so sordidly obstinate as to have any thing to do with suchunwholsome Ingredients; because these are not only of the cheapest sort,but will answer their End and Purpose; and the rather, since Malts are nowonly twenty Shillings per Quarter, and like to hold a low Price forReasons that I could here assign.I own, I formerly thought they were too valuable to expose to the Publickby reason of their Cheapness and great Virtues, as being most of themwholsomer than the Malt itself, which is but a corrupted Grain. But, as Ihope they will do considerable Service in the World towards having clearsalubrious and pleasant Malt Liquors in most private Families andAlehouses, I have my Satisfaction.CHAP. XVI._Of the Cellar or Repository for keeping Beers and Ales_.It's certain by long Experience, that the Weather or Air has not only aPower or Influence in Brewings; but also after the Drink is in the Barrel,Hogshead or Butt, in Cellars or other Places, which is often the cause offorwarding or retarding the fineness of Malt Liquors; for if we brew incold Weather, and the Drink is to stand in a Cellar of Clay, or whereSprings rise, or Waters lye or pass through, such a Place by consequencewill check the due working of the Drink, chill, flat, deaden and hinder itfrom becoming fine. So likewise if Beer or Ale is brewed in hot Weatherand put into Chalky, Gravelly or Sandy Cellars, and especially if theWindows open to the South, South-East, or South-West, then it is verylikely it will not keep long, but be muddy and stale: Therefore, to keepBeer in such a Cellar, it should be brewed in _October_, that the Drinkmay have time to cure itself before the hot Weather comes on; but inwettish or damp Cellars, 'tis best to Brew in _March_, that the Drink mayhave time to fine and settle before the Winter Weather is advanced. Nowsuch Cellar Extremities should, if it could be done, be brought into atemperate State, for which purpose some have been so curious as to havedouble or treble Doors to their Cellar to keep the Air out, and thencarefully shut the outward, before they enter the inward one, whereby itwill be more secure from aerial Alterations; for in Cellars and Places,that are most exposed to such Seasons, Malt Liquors are frequentlydisturb'd and made unfit for a nice Drinker; therefore if a Cellar is keptdry and these Doors to it, it is reckoned warm in Winter and cool inSummer, but the best of Cellars are thought to be those in Chalks, Gravelsor Sands, and particularly in Chalks, which are of a drying quality morethan any other, and consequently dissipates Damps the most of all Earths,which makes it contribute much to the good keeping of the Drink; for alldamp Cellars are prejudicial to the Preservation of Beers and Ales, andsooner bring on the rotting of the Casks and Hoops than the dry ones;Insomuch that in a chalky Cellar near me, their Ashen broad Hoops havelasted above thirty Years. Besides, in such inclosed Cellars and temperateAir, the Beers and Ales ripen more kindly, are better digested andsoftned, and drink smoother: But when the Air is in a disproportion by theCellars letting in Heats and Colds, the Drink will grow Stale and bedisturbed, sooner than when the Air is kept out. From hence it is, that insome Places their Malt Liquors are exceeding good, because they brew withPale or Amber Malts, Chalky Water, and keep their Drinks in close Vaultsor proper dry Cellars, which is of such Importance, that notwithstandingany Malt Liquor may be truly brewed, yet it may be spoiled in a bad Cellarthat may cause such alternate Fermentations as to make it thick and sour,tho' it sometimes happens that after such Changes it fines itself again;and to prevent these Commotions of the Beer, some brew their pale Malt in_March_ and their brown in _October_, for that the pale Malt, having notso many fiery Particles in it as the brown, stands more in need of theSummer's Weather to ripen it, while the brown sort being more hard and dryis better able to defend itself against the Winter Colds that will help tosmooth its harsh Particles; yet when they happen to be too violent,Horse-dung should be laid to the Windows as a Fortification against them;but if there were no Lights at all to a Cellar, it would be better.Some are of Opinion, that _October_ is the best of all other Months tobrew any sort of Malt in, by reason there are so many cold Months directlyfollow, that will digest the Drink and make it much excel that Brewed in_March_ because such Beer will not want that Care and Watching, as thatbrewed in _March_ absolutely requires, by often taking out and putting inthe Vent-peg on Change of Weather; and if it is always left out, then itdeadens and palls the Drink; yet if due Care is not taken in this respect,a Thunder or Stormy Night may marr all, by making the Drink ferment andburst the Cask; for which Reason, as Iron Hoops are most in Fashion atthis time, they are certainly the greatest Security to the safety of theDrink thus exposed; and next to them is the Chesnut Hoop; both which willendure a shorter or longer time as the Cellar is more or less dry, and theManagement attending them. The Iron Hoop generally begins to rust first atthe Edges, and therefore should be rubbed off when opportunity offers, andbe both kept from wet as much as possible; for 'tis Rust that eats theIron Hoop in two sometimes in ten or twelve Years, when the Ashen andChesnut in dry Cellars have lasted three times as long.CHAP. XVII._Of Cleaning and Sweetening of Casks_.In Case your Cask is a Butt, then with cold Water first rince out the Leesclean, and have ready, boiling or very hot Water, which put in, and with along Stale and a little Birch fastened to its End, scrub the Bottom aswell as you can. At the same time let there be provided another shorterBroom of about a Foot and a half long, that with one Hand may be soimployed in the upper and other Parts as to clean the Cask well: So in aHogshead or other smaller Vessel, the one-handed short Broom may be usedwith Water, or with Water, Sand or Ashes, and be effectually cleaned; theoutside of the Cask about the Bung-hole should be well washed, lest theYeast, as it works over, carries some of its Filth with it.But to sweeten a Barrel, Kilderkin, Firkin or Pin in the great Brewhouses,they put them over the Copper Hole for a Night together, that the Steam ofthe boiling Water or Wort may penetrate into the Wood; this Way is such afurious Searcher, that unless the Cask is new hooped just before, it willbe apt to fall in pieces._Another Way_.Take a Pottle, or more, of Stone Lime, and put it into the Cask; on thispour some Water and stop it up directly, shaking it well about._Another Way_.Take a long Linnen Rag and dip it in melted Brimstone, light it at theend, and let it hang pendant with the upper part of the Rag fastened tothe wooden Bung; this is a most quick sure Way, and will not only sweeten,but help to fine the Drink. _Another_.Or to make your Cask more pleasant, you may use the Vintners Way thus:Take four Ounces of Stone Brimstone, one Ounce of burnt Alum, and twoOunces of Brandy; melt all these in an Earthen Pan over hot Coals, and diptherein a piece of new Canvas, and instantly sprinkle thereon the Powdersof Nutmegs, Cloves, Coriander and Anise-seeds: This Canvas set on fire,and let it burn hanging in the Cask fastened at the end with the woodenBung, so that no Smoke comes out. _For a Musty Cask_.Boil some Pepper in water and fill the Cask with it scalding hot. _For a very stinking Vessel_.The last Remedy is the Coopers taking out one of the Heads of the Cask toscrape the inside, or new-shave the Staves, and is the surest way of allothers, if it is fired afterwards within-side a small matter, as theCooper knows how.These several Methods may be made use of at Discretion, and will be ofgreat Service where they are wanted. The sooner also a Remedy is applied,the better; else the Taint commonly encreases, as many have to theirprejudice proved, who have made use of such Casks, in hopes the next Beerwill overcome it; but when once a Cask is infected, it will be a longwhile, if ever, before it becomes sweet, if no Art is used. Many thereforeof the careful sort, in case they han't a Convenience to fill their Vesselas soon as it is empty, will stop it close, to prevent the Air andpreserve the Lees sound, which will greatly tend to the keeping of theCask pure and sweet against the next Occasion. _To prepare a new Vessel to keep Malt Liquors in_.A new Vessel is most improperly used by some ignorant People for strongDrink after only once or twice scalding with Water, which is so wrong,that such Beer or Ale will not fail of tasting thereof for half, if not awhole Year afterwards; such is the Tang of the Oak and its Bark, as may beobserved from the strong Scents of Tan-Yards, which the Bark is one causeof. To prevent then this Inconvenience, when your Brewing is over put upsome Water scalding hot, and let it run throu' the Grains, then boil itand fill up the Cask, stop it well and let it stand till it is cold, dothis twice, then take the Grounds of strong Drink and boil in it greenWallnut Leaves and new Hay or Wheat Straw, and put all into the Cask, thatit be full and stop it close. After this, use it for small Beer half aYear together, and then it will be thoroughly sweet and fit for strongDrinks; or _Another Way_.Take a new Cask and dig a Hole in the Ground, in which it may lye halfdepth with the Bung downwards; let it remain a Week, and it will greatlyhelp this or any stinking musty Cask. But besides these, I have writ oftwo other excellent Ways to sweeten musty or stinking Casks, in my SecondBook of Brewing._Wine Casks_.These, in my Opinion, are the cheapest of all others to furnish a Personreadily with, as being many of them good Casks for Malt Liquors, becausethe Sack and White-Wine sorts are already season'd to Hand, and willgreatly improve Beers and Ales that are put in them: But beware of theRhenish Wine Cask for strong Drinks; for its Wood is so tinctured withthis sharp Wine, that it will hardly ever be free of it, and thereforesuch Cask is best used for Small Beer: The Claret Cask will a great dealsooner be brought into a serviceable State for holding strong Drink, if itis two or three times scalded with Grounds of Barrels, and afterwards usedfor small Beer for some time. I have bought a Butt or Pipe for eightShillings in _London_ with some Iron Hoops on it, a good Hogshead for thesame, and the half Hogshead for five Shillings, the Carriage for a Butt bythe Waggon thirty Miles is two Shillings and Sixpence, and the HogsheadEighteen-pence: But, to cure a Claret Cask of its Colour and Taste, put aPeck of Stone-Lime into a Hogshead, and pour upon it three Pails of Water;bung immediately with a Wood-or Cork Bung, and shake it well about aquarter of an Hour, and let it stand a Day and Night and it will bring offthe red Colour, and alter the Taste of the Cask very much. But of threeseveral other excellent Methods for curing musty, stinking, new and othertainted Casks, I have writ of in my Account of Casks in my Second Book.CHAP. XVIII._Of Bunging Casks and Carrying of Malt Liquors to some distance_.I am sure this is of no small Consequence, however it may be esteemed as alight matter by some; for if this is not duly perform'd, all our Charge,Labour and Care will be lost; and therefore here I shall dissent from my_London_ Fashion, where I bung'd up my Ale with Pots of Clay only, or withClay mix'd with Bay Salt, which is the better of the two, because thisSalt will keep the Clay moist longer than in its Original State; and theButt Beers and fine Ales were Bung'd with Cork drove in with a piece ofHop-Sack or Rag, which I think are all insipid, and the occasion ofspoiling great Quantities of Drink, especially the small Beers; for whenthe Clay is dry, which is soon in Summer, there cannot be a regular Ventthro' it, and then the Drink from that time flattens and stales to thegreat loss in a Year to some Owners, and the Benefit of the Brewer; forthen a fresh Cask must be Tapp'd to supply it, and the remaining part ofthe other throw'd away. Now, to prevent this great Inconvenience, myBung-holes are not quite of the largest size of all, and yet big enoughfor the common wooden Iron Hoop'd Funnel used in some Brew-houses: In thisI put in a turned piece of Ash or Sallow three Inches broad at Top, andtwo Inches and a half long, first putting in a double piece of dry brownPaper, that is so broad that an Inch or more may be out of it, after thewooden Bung is drove down with a Hammer pretty tight; this Paper must befurl'd or twisted round the Bung, and another loose piece upon and aroundthat, with a little Yeast, and a small Peg put into the Bung, which is tobe raised at Discretion when the Beer is drawing, or at other times togive it Vent if there should be occasion: Others will put some Coal orWood Ashes wetted round this Bung, which will bind very hard, and preventany Air getting into or out of the Cask; but this in time is apt to rot,and wear the Bung-hole by the Salt or Sulphur in the Ashes, and employinga Knife to scrape it afterwards. Yet, for keeping Beers, it's the bestSecurity of all other ways whatsoever.There is also a late Invention practised by a common Brewer in the Countrythat I am acquainted with, for the safe Carriage of Drink on Drays, tosome distance without losing any of it, and that is in the Top Center ofone of these Bungs, he puts in a wooden Funnel, whose Spout is about fourInches long, and less than half an Inch Diameter at Bottom; this is turnedat Top into a concave Fashion like a hollow round Bowl, that will holdabout a Pint, which is a constant Vent to the Cask, and yet hinders theLiquor from ascending no faster than the Bowl can receive, and return itagain into the Barrel: I may say further, he has brought a Barrel twoMiles, and it was then full, when it arrived at his Customers, because thePint that was put into the Funnel, at setting out, was not at all lostwhen he took it off the Dray; this may be also made of Tin; and will servefrom the Butt to the small Cask.In the Butt there is a Cork-hole made about two Inches below the upperHead, and close under that a piece of Leather is nailed Spout-fashion,that jetts three Inches out, from which the Yeast works and falls into aTub, and when the working is over the Cork is put closely in, for the Bungin the Head of the upright Cask is put in as soon as it is filled up withnew Drink: Now when such a Cask is to be broach'd and a quick Draught isto follow, then it may be tapp'd at Bottom; but if otherwise, the BrassCock ought to be first put in at the middle, and before the Drink sinks tothat it should be Tapp'd at Bottom to prevent the breaking of the Head ofYeast, and its growing stale, flat and sour.In some Places in the Country when they brew Ale or Beer to send to_London_ at a great Distance, they let it be a Year old before they Tapit, so that then it is perfectly fine; this they put into small Casks thathave a Bung-hole only fit for a large Cork, and then they immediately putin a Role of Bean-flour first kneaded with Water or Drink, and baked in anOven, which is all secured by pitching in the Cork, and so sent in theWaggon; the Bean-flour feeding and preserving the Body of the Drink allthe way, without fretting or causing it to burst the Cask for want ofVent, and when Tapp'd will also make the Drink very brisk, because theFlour is in such a hard Consistence, that it won't dissolve in that time;but if a little does mix with the Ale or Beer, its heavy Parts will soonerfine than thicken the Drink and keep it mellow and lively to the last, ifAir is kept out of the Barrel.CHAP. XIX._Of the Strength and Age of Malt Liquors_.Whether they be Ales or strong Beers, it is certain that the midling sortis allowed by Physicians to be the most agreeable of any, especially tothose of a sedentary Life, or those that are not occupied in such Businessas promotes Perspiration enough to throw out and break the Viscidities ofthe stronger sorts; on which account the laborious Man has the advantage,whose Diet being poor and Body robust, the strength of such Liquors givesa Supply and better digests into Nourishment: But for the unactive Man aHogshead of Ale which is made from six Bushels of Malt is sufficient for aDiluter of their Food, and will better assist their Constitution than themore strong sort, that would in such produce Obstructions and ill Humours;and therefore that Quantity for Ale, and ten Bushels for a Hogshead ofstrong Beer that should not be Tapp'd under nine Months, is the mosthealthful. And this I have experienc'd by enjoying such an Amber Liquorthat has been truly brewed from good Malt, as to be of a Vinous Nature,that would permit of a hearty Dose over Night, and yet the next Morningleave a Person light, brisk and unconcern'd. This then is the true Nostrumof Brewing, and ought to be studied and endeavoured for by all those thatcan afford to follow the foregoing Rules, and then it will supply in agreat measure those chargeable (and often adulterated tartarousarthritick) Wines. So likewise for small Beer, especially in a Farmer'sFamily where it is not of a Body enough, the Drinkers will be feeble inhot Weather and not be able to perform their Work, and will also bring onDistempers, besides the loss of time, and a great waste of such Beer thatis generally much thrown away; because Drink is certainly a Nourisher ofthe Body, as well as Meats, and the more substantial they both are, thebetter will the Labourer go through his Work, especially at Harvest; andin large Families the Doctor's Bills have proved the Evil of this badOeconomy, and far surmounted the Charge of that Malt that would have keptthe Servants in good Health, and preserved the Beer from such Waste as thesmaller sort is liable to.'Tis therefore that some prudent Farmers will brew their Ale and smallBeer in _March_, by allowing of five or six Bushels of Malt, and twoPounds of Hops to the Hogshead of Ale, and a quarter of Malt and threePounds of Hops to five Barrels of small Beer. Others there are, that willbrew their Ale or strong Beer in _October_, and their small Beer a Monthbefore it is wanted. Others will brew their Ale and small Beer in _April,May_ and _June_; but this according to humour, and therefore I have hintedof the several Seasons for Brewing these Liquors: However in my Opinion,whether it be strong or small Drinks, they should be clear, smooth and nottoo small, if they are design'd for Profit and Health; for if they areotherwise, it will be a sad Evil to Harvest Men, because then they standmost in need of the greatest Balsamicks: To this end some of the softningIngredients mentioned in the foregoing Receipts should be made use of tofeed it accordingly, if these Drinks are brewed forward. And that thisparticular important Article in the Brewing Oeconomy may be betterunderstood, I shall here recite Dr. _Quincy_'s Opinion of Malt Liquors,viz. The Age of Malt Drinks makes them more or less wholsome, and seems todo somewhat the same as Hops; for those Liquors which are longest kept,are certainly the least viscid; Age by degrees breaking the viscid Parts,and rendering them smaller, makes them finer for Secretion; but this isalways to be determined by their Strength, because in Proportion to thatwill they sooner or later come to their full Perfection and likewise theirDecay, until the finer Spirits quite make their Escape, and the remainderbecomes vapid and sour. By what therefore has been already said, it willappear that the older Drinks are the more healthful, so they be kept up tothis Standard, but not beyond it. Some therefore are of Opinion, thatstrong Beer brewed in _October_ should be Tapp'd at _Midsummer_, and thatbrewed in _March_ at _Christmas_, as being most agreeable to the Seasonsof the Year that follow such Brewings: For then they will both have partof a Summer and Winter to ripen and digest their several Bodies; and 'tismy humble Opinion, that where the Strength of the Beer, the Quantity ofHops, the boiling Fermentation and the Cask are all rightly managed, thereDrink may be most excellent, and better at nine Months Age, than at nineYears, for Health and Pleasure of Body. But to be truly certain of theright Time, there should be first an Examination made by Pegging theVessel to prove if such Drink is fine, the Hop sufficiently rotted, and itbe mellow and well tasted.CHAP. XX._Of the Pleasure and Profit of Private Brewing, and the Charge of buyingMalt Liquors_.Here I am to treat of the main Article of shewing the difference betweenbrewing our own Ales and Beers, and buying them, which I doubt not willappear so plain and evident, as to convince any Reader, that many Personsmay save well towards half in half, and have their Beer and Ale strong,fine and aged at their own Discretion: A satisfaction that is of no smallweight, and the rather since I have now made known a Method of Brewing aQuantity of Malt with a little Copper and a few Tubs, a Secret that haslong wanted Publication; for now a Person may Brew in a little Room, andthat very safely by keeping his Wort from Foxing, as I have alreadyexplained, which by many has been thought impossible heretofore; and thisDirection is the more Valuable as there are many Thousands who live inCities and Towns, that have no more than a few Yards Square of Room toperform a private Brewing in. And as for the trouble, it is easy toaccount for by those who have time enough on their Hands, and would donothing else if they had not done this: Or if a Man is paid half a Crown aDay for a Quantity accordingly: Or if a Servant can do this besides hisother Work for the same Wages and Charge, I believe the following accountwill make it appear it is over-ballanc'd considerably, by what such aPerson may save in this undertaking, besides the Pleasure of thoroughlyknowing the several Ingredients and Cleanliness of the Brewer andUtensils. In several of the Northern Counties of _England_, where theyhave good Barley, Coak-dryed Malt, and the Drink brewed at Home, there areseldom any bad Ales or Beers, because they have the Knowledge in Brewingso well, that there are hardly any common Brewers amongst them: In theWest indeed there are some few, but in the South and East Parts there aremany; and now follows the Account, that I have Stated according to my owngeneral Practice, viz._A Calculation of the Charge and Profit of Brewing six Bushels of Malt fora private Family_. £. s. d.Six Bushels of Malt at 2s. 8d. _per_ Bushel, Barley being this ) Year 1733. sold for 14s. _per_ ) 0 16 0 Quarter by the Farmer )Hops one Pound 0 1 6Yeast a Quart 0 0 4Coals one Bushel, or if Wood or Furze 0 1 0A Man's Wages a Day 0 2 6 ------------ Total 1 1 4_Of these six Bushels of Malt I make one Hogshead of Ale and another ofSmall Beer: But if I was to buy them of some common Brewers, the Chargewill be as follows_, viz. £ s. d.One Hogshead of Ale containing 48 ) Gallons, at 6 _d. per_ Gallon is ) 1 4 0One Hogshead of Small Beer )containing 54 Gallons, at 2 _d_. )0 9 0 _per_ Gallon is ) 0 9 0 ___.____.____ 1 13 0 ___.____.____ Total Saved 0 11 8By the above Account it plainly appears, that 11 s. and 8 d. is clearlygained in Brewing of six Bushels of Malt at our own House for a privateFamily, and yet I make the Charge fuller by 2 s. and 6 d. then it willhappen with many, whose Conveniency by Servants, &c. may intirely take itoff; besides the six Bushels of Grains that are currently sold forThree-pence the Bushel, which will make the Eleven and Eight-pence more byfour Shillings, without reckoning any thing for yeast, that in the verycheapest time sells here for Four-pence the Quart, and many times therehappens three Quarts from so much Drink; so that there may possibly begained in all sixteen Shillings and Eight-pence: A fine Sum indeed in sosmall a Quantity of Malt. But here by course will arise a Question,whether this Ale is as good as that bought of some of the common Brewersat Six-pence a Gallon; I can't say all is; however I can aver this, thatthe Ale I brew in the Country from six Bushels of Malt for my Family, Ithink is generally full as good, if not better than any I ever sold atthat Price in my _London_ Brewhouse: And if I should say, that where theMalt, Water and Hops are right good, and the Brewer's Skill answerable tothem, there might be a Hogshead of as good Ale and another of small Beermade from five Bushels as I desire to use for my Family, or for HarvestMen; It is no more than I have many times experienced, and 'tis the commonlength I made for that Purpose. And whoever makes use of true Pale andAmber Malts, and pursues the Directions of this Book, I doubt not but willhave their Expectation fully answered in this last Quantity, and so savethe great Expence of Excise that the common Brewers Drink is alwaysclogg'd with, which is [blotted text] than five Shillings for Ale andEighteen-pence _per_ Barrel for Small Beer.CHAP. XXI._A Philosophical Account for Brewing strong_ October _Beer. By anIngenious Hand_.In Brewing, your Malt ought to be sound and good, and after its making tolye two or more Months in the Heap, to come to such a temper, that theKernel may readily melt in the washing.The well dressing your Malt, ought to be one chief Care; for unless it befreed from the Tails and Dust, your Drink will not be fine and mellow aswhen it is clean dressed.The grinding also must be considered according to the high or low dryingof the Malt; for if high dryed, then a gross grinding is best, otherwise asmaller may be done; for the Care in grinding consists herein, lest toomuch of the Husk being ground small should mix with the Liquor, whichmakes a gross Feces, and consequently your Drink will have too fierce aFermentation, and by that means make it Acid, or that we call Stale.When your Malt is ground, let it stand in Sacks twenty-four Hours atleast, to the end that the Heat in grinding may be allayed, and 'tisconceived by its so standing that the Kernel will dissolve the better.The measure and quantity we allow of Hops and Malt, is five Quarter ofMalt to three Hogsheads of Beer, and eighteen Pounds of Hops at least tothat Quantity of Malt, and if Malt be pale dryed, then add three or fourPounds of Hops more.The Choice of Liquor for Brewing is of considerable advantage in makinggood Drink, the softest and cleanest water is to be prererr'd, your harshwater is not to be made use of.You are to boil your first Liquor, adding a Handful or two of Hops to it,then before you strike it over to your Goods or Malt, cool in as muchLiquor, as will bring it to a temper not to scald the Malt, for it is afault not to take the Liquor as high as possible but not to scald. Thenext Liquors do the same.And indeed all your Liquors ought to be taken as high as may be, that isnot to scald.When you let your Wort from your Malt into the Underback, put to it aHandful or two of Hops, 'twill preserve it from that accident whichBrewers call Blinking or Foxing.In boiling your Worts, the first Wort boil high or quick; for the quickerthe first Wort is boiled, the better it is.The second boil more than the first, and the third or last more than thesecond.In cooling lay your Worts thin, and let each be well cooled, and Care mustbe taken in letting them down into the Tun, that you do it leisurely, tothe end that as little of the Feces or Sediment which causes theFermentation to be fierce or mild, for Note, there is in all fermentedLiquors, Salt and Sulphur, and to keep these two Bodies in a dueProportion, that the Salt does not exalt itself above the Sulphur,consists a great part of the Art in Brewing.When your Wort is first let into your Tun, put but a little Yeast to it,and let it work by degrees quietly, and if you find it works but moderate,whip in the Yeast two or three times or more, till you find your Drinkwell fermented, for without a full opening of the Body by fermentation, itwill not be perfect fine, nor will it drink clean and light.When you cleanse, do it by a Cock from your Tun, placed six Inches fromthe Bottom, to the end that most of the Sediment may be left behind, whichmay be thrown on your Malt to mend your Small Beer.When your Drink is Tunn'd, fill your Vessel full, let it work at theBung-hole, and have a reserve in a small Cask to fill it up, and don't putany of the Drink which will be under the Yeast after it is work'd overinto your Vessels, but put it by itself in another Cask, for it will notbe so good as your other in the Cask.This done, you must wait for the finishing of the fermentation, then stopit close, and let it stand till the Spring, for Brewing ought to be donein the Month of _October_, that it may have time to settle and digest allthe Winter Season.In the Spring you must unstop your Vent-hole and thereby see whether yourDrink doth ferment or not, for as soon as the warm Weather comes, yourDrink will have another fermentation, which when it is over, let it beagain well stopped and stand till _September_ or longer, and then Peg it;and if you find it pretty fine, the Hop well rotted and of a good pleasanttaste for drinking.Then and not before draw out a Gallon of it, put to it two Ounces ofIsing-glass cut small and well beaten to melt, stirring it often and whipit with a Wisk till the Ising-glass be melted, then strain it and put itinto your Vessel, stirring it well together, stop the Bung slightly, forthis will cause a new and small fermentation, when that is over stop itclose, leaving only a Vent-hole a little stopp'd, let it stand, and in tenDays or a little more, it will be transparently fine, and you may drink ofit out of the Vessel till two parts in three be drawn, then Bottle therest, which will in a little time come to drink very well. If your Drinkin _September_ be well condition'd for taste, but not fine, and you desireto drink it presently, rack it before you put your Ising-glass to it, andthen it will fine the better and drink the cleaner.To make Drink fine quickly, I have been told that by separating the Liquorfrom the Feces, when the Wort is let out of the Tun into the Underback,which may be done in this manner, when you let your Wort into yourUnderback out of your Tun, catch the Wort in some Tub so long, and sooften as you find it run foul, put that so catched on the Malt again, anddo so till the Wort run clear into the Underback. This is to me a verygood way (where it may be done) for 'tis the Feces which causes the fierceand violent fermentation, and to hinder that in some measure is the way tohave fine Drink: Note that the finer you make your Wort, the sooner yourDrink will be fine, for I have heard that some Curious in Brewing havecaused Flannels to be so placed, that all the Wort may run thro' one ormore of them into the Tun before working, by which means the Drink wasmade very fine and well tasted. _Observations on the foregoing Account_.This Excellent Philosophical Account of Brewing _October_ Beer, hashitherto remained in private Hands as a very great Secret, and was givento a Friend of mine by the Author himself, to whom the World is muchobliged, altho' it comes by me; In justice therefore to this ingeniousPerson, I would here mention his Name, had I leave for so doing; but atpresent this Intimation must suffice. However, I shall here take notice,that his Caution against using tailed or dusty Malt, which is too commonlysold, is truly worthy of Observation; for these are so far from producingmore Ale or Beer, that they absorb and drink part of it up.In Grinding Malts he notifies well to prevent a foul Drink.The quantity he allows is something above thirteen Bushels to the Hogsheadwhich is very sufficient; but this as every body pleases.The Choice of Liquors or Waters for Brewing, he says, is of considerableadvantage; and so must every body else that knows their Natures and lovesHealth, and pleasant Drink: For this purpose, in my Opinion, the Air andSoil is to be regarded where the Brewing is performed; since the Airaffects all things it can come at, whether Animal, Vegetable or Mineral,as may be proved from many Instances: In the Marshes of _Kent_ and_Essex_, the Air there is generally so infectious by means of those lowvaesy boggy Grounds, that seldom a Person escapes an Ague one time orother, whether Natives or Aliens, and is often fatally known to some ofthe _Londoners_ and others who merrily and nimbly travel down to the Islesof _Grain_ and _Sheppy_ for a valuable Harvest, but in a Month's time theygenerally return thro' the Village of _Soorne_ with another Mien. There isalso a little _Moor_ in _Hertfordshire_, thro' which a Water runs thatfrequently gives the _Passant_ Horses that drink of it, the Colick orGripes, by means of the aluminous sharp Particles of its Earth; Its Air isalso so bad, as has obliged several to remove from its Situation for theirHealths: The Dominion of the Air is likewise so powerful over Vegetables,that what will grow in one Place won't in another, as is plain from theBeech and Black Cherry Tree, that refuse the Vale of _Ailesbury_ tho' onsome Hills there, yet will thrive in the _Chiltern_ or Hilly Country: Sothe Limes and other Trees about _London_ are all generally black-barked,while those in the Country are most of them of a Silver white. Water isalso so far under the Influence of the Air and Soil, as makes manyexcellent for Brewing when others are as bad. In Rivers, that run thro'boggy Places, the Sullage or Washings of such Soils are generallyunwholsome as the nature of such Ground is; and so the Water becomesinfected by that and the Effluvia or Vapour that accompanies such Water:So Ponds are surely good or bad, as they are under too much Cover orsupply'd by nasty Drains, or as they stand situated or exposed to good andbad Airs. Thus the Well-waters by consequence share in the good or badEffects of such Soils that they run thorough, and the very Surface of theEarth by which such Waters are strained, is surely endowed with thequality of the Air in which it lies; which brings me to my intendedpurpose, to prove that Water drawn out of a Chalky, or Fire-stone Well,which is situated under a dry sweet loamy Soil, in a fine pure Air, andthat is perfectly soft, must excel most if not all other Well-waters forthe purpose in Brewing. The Worts also that are rooted in such an Air, incourse partakes of its nitrous Benefits, as being much exposed thereto inthe high Backs or Coolers that contain them. In my own Grounds I haveChalks under Clays and Loams; but as the latter is better than the former,so the Water proves more soft and wholsome under one than the other. Hencethen may be observed the contrary Quality of those harsh curdlingWell-waters that many drink of in their Malt Liquors, without consideringtheir ill Effects, which are justly condemn'd by this able Author as unfitto be made use of in Brewing _October_ Beer.The boiling a few Hops in the first Water is good, but they must bestrained thro' a Sieve before the Water is put into the Malt; and to checkits Heat with cold Liquor, or to let it stand to cool some time, is aright Method, lest it scalds and locks up the Pores of the Malt, whichwould then yield a thick Wort to the end of the Brewing and never be goodDrink.His putting Hops into the Underback, is an excellent Contrivance toprevent foxing, as I have already hinted.The quick boiling of the Wort is of no less Service, and that the smallerWort should be boiled longer than the strong is good Judgment, because thestronger the Wort, the sooner the Spirits flie away and the waste of moreConsequence; besides if the first Wort was to be boiled too long, it wouldobtain so thick a Body, as to prevent in great measure its fininghereafter after so soon in the Barrel; while the smaller sort willevaporate its more watry Parts, and thereby be brought into a thickerConfidence, which is perfectly necessary in thin Worts; and in thisArticle lies so much the Skill of the Brewer, that some will make a longerLength than ordinary from the Goods for Small Beer, to shorten itafterwards in the Copper by Length of boiling, and this way of consumingit is the more natural, because the remaining part will be better Cured.The laying Worts thin is a most necessary Precaution; for this is one wayto prevent their running into Cohesions and Foxing, the want of whichKnowledge and Care has undoubtedly been the occasion of great Losses inBrewing; for when Worts are tainted in any considerable degree, they willbe ropy in time and unfit for the human Body, as being unwholsome as wellas unpleasant. So likewise is his _Item_ of great Importance, when headvises to draw the Worts off fine out of the Backs or Coolers, and leavethe Feces or Sediments behind, by reason, as he says, they are the causeof those two detested Qualities in Malt Liquors, staleness and foulness,two Properties that ought to imploy the greatest Care in Brewers toprevent; for 'tis certain these Sediments are a Composition of the veryworst part of the Malt, Hops and Yeast, and, while they are in the Barrel,will so tincture and impregnate the Drink with their insanous andunpleasant nature, that its Drinkers will be sure to participate thereofmore or less as they have lain together a longer or a shorter time. Tohave then a Malt Drink balsamick and mild, the Worts cannot be run off toofine from the Coolers, nor well fermented too slow, that there may be aMedium kept, in both the Salt and Sulphur that all fermented Malt Drinksabound with, and herein, as he says, lies a great part of the Art ofBrewing.He says truly well, that a little Yeast at first should be put to theWort, that it may quietly work by degrees, and not be violently forc'dinto a high Fermentation; for then by course the Salt and Sulphur will betoo violently agitated into such an Excess and Disagreement of Parts, thatwill break their Unity into irregular Commotions, and cause the Drink tobe soon stale and harsh. But if it should be too backward and work toomoderate, then whipping the Yeast two or three times into it will be ofsome service to open the Body of the Beer, for as he observes, if Drinkhas not a due fermentation, it will not be fine, clean, nor light.His advice to draw the Drink out of the Tun by a Cock at such a distancefrom the bottom is right; because that room will best keep the Feces frombeing disturb'd as the Drink is drawing off, and leaving them behind; butfor putting them afterwards over the Malt for Small Beer, I don't hold itconsonant with good Brewing, by reason in this Sediment there are manyParticles of the Yeast, that consequently will cause a small Fermentationin the Liquor and Malt, and be a means to spoil rather than make goodSmall Beer.What he says of filling up the Cask with a reserve of the same Drink, andnot with that which has once worked out, is past dispute just and right.And so is what he says of stopping up the Vessel close after theFermentation is over; but that it is best to Brew all strong Beer in_October_, I must here take leave to dissent from the Tenet, because thereis room for several Objections in relation to the sort of Malt and Cellar,which as I have before explained, shall say the less here.As he observes Care should be taken in the Spring to unstop the Vent, lestthe warm Weather cause such a Fermentation as may burst the Cask, and alsoin _September_, that it be first try'd by Pegging if the Drink is fine,well tasted and the Hop rotted; and then if his Way is liked best, bringthe rest into a transparent Fineness; for Clearness in Malt Liquors, as Isaid before, and here repeat it again, is a most agreeable Quality thatevery Man ought to enjoy for his Health and Pleasure, and therefore headvises for dispatch in this Affair, and to have the Drink very fine, torack it off before the Ising-glass is put in; but I can't be a Votary forthis Practice, as believing the Drink must lose a great deal of itsSpirits by such shifting; yet I must chime in with his Notion of puttingthe Wort so often over the Malt till it comes off fine as I have alreadytaught, which is a Method that has been used many Years in the North of_England_, where they are so curious as to let the Wort lie some time inthe Underback to draw it off from the Feces there; nor are they lesscareful to run it fine out of the Cooler into the Tun, and from that intothe Cask; in all which three several Places the Wort and Drink may be hadclear and fine, and then there will be no more Sediments than is justnecessary to assist and seed the Beer, and preserving its Spirits in a dueTemper. But if Persons have Time and Conveniency, and their Inclinationleads them to, obtain their Drink in the utmost Fineness, it is anextraordinary good way to use _Hippocrates_ Sleeve or Flannel Bag, which Idid in my great Brew-house at _London_ for straining off the Feces thatwere left in the Backs. As to the Quantity of Malt for Brewing a Hogsheadof _October_ Beer, I am of Opinion thirteen Bushels are right, and so areten, fifteen and twenty, according as People approve of; for near_Litchfield_, I know some have brewed a Hogshead of _October_ Beer fromsixteen Bushels of Barley Malt, one of Wheat, one of Beans, one of Peaseand one of Oat Malt, besides hanging a Bag of Flower taken out of the lastfour Malts in the Hogshead for the Drink to feed on, nor can a certainTime Be limited and adjusted for the Tapping of any Drink (notwithstandingwhat has been affirmed to the contrary) because some Hops will not berotted so soon as others, and some Drinks will not fine so soon as others;as is evident in the Pale Malt Drinks, that will seldom or never break sosoon in the Copper as the Brown sort, nor will they be so soon ripe andfit to Tap as the high dryed Malt Drink will. Therefore what thisGentleman says of trying Drink by first Pegging it before it is Tapp'd, inmy Opinion is more just and right than relying on a limited time forBroaching such Beer.
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